China’s ZTE Corp. was fighting for its very survival when U.S. President Donald Trump came to its rescue and helped engineer a settlement. In April, the telecommunications giant had been banned by the U.S. Commerce Department from buying American technology for seven years, essentially ending its ability to operate as a business. The settlement allows ZTE to resume purchases from U.S. suppliers, provided it pays a penalty of at least $1 billion and replaces its senior management and board of directors.

1. How did ZTE land in trouble with the U.S. government?

China’s second-largest telecommunications equipment company ran into trouble in 2016 for violating U.S. laws restricting the sale of American technology to Iran. An agreement in 2017 called for the company to pay as much as $1.2 billion and penalize the workers involved, in what was the largest criminal fine for the Justice Department in an export control or sanctions case. But in April, the Commerce Department said ZTE instead paid full bonuses to employees who engaged in the illegal conduct, failed to issue letters of reprimand and lied about the practices to U.S. authorities. That led to the seven-year ban on buying from American suppliers.

2. How important are American suppliers to ZTE?

Essential. ZTE makes both smartphones that are sold to consumers and communications equipment that goes into networks of telecom operators and corporate customers. To build those products, it needs semiconductors from Qualcomm Inc. and Intel Corp. and optical components from suppliers such as Lumentum Holdings Inc. and Acacia Communications Inc. In May, ZTE revealed that the “major operating activities” of the company had “ceased.”

3. Why did Trump intervene on the ban?

It’s not clear at this point why Trump jumped in. When the ban was imposed in April, Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross himself blasted ZTE in a sharply worded statement, saying that its “egregious behavior cannot be ignored.” In a surprise tweet in May, Trump signaled that he plans to walk back those penalties and said the “Commerce Department has been instructed to get it done!” It’s not clear how or if Ross and Commerce were involved in Trump’s declaration. Trump has said he reviewed the penalties as a personal favor to Chinese President Xi Jinping. Lifting the sales ban on ZTE was a key demand China made in broader trade talks with the U.S. to avert a trade war.

4. How does this fit into the U.S.-China trade war?

The U.S. actions against ZTE began before the latest trade tensions, but they later became central to the discussions. Trump and Ross have criticized China for its trade practices. The U.S. threatened tariffs on $150 billion in Chinese imports for alleged violations of intellectual property rights, while Beijing vowed to retaliate on everything from American soybeans to planes. China has myriad ways to affect American businesses, from overseeing manufacturers that produce for U.S. customers to weighing regulatory decisions on mergers and acquisitions. For example, Chinese regulators still need to approve Qualcomm’s proposed purchase of NXP Semiconductors NV.

5. What’s at stake for China?

This is about more than pride for the country. ZTE is a major employer with about 75,000 workers, and is second only to Huawei Technologies Co. among Chinese makers of communications gear. As the country works to build up its domestic technology industry, it wants to support local champions like ZTE. There’s money at stake too: Tsinghua Unigroup, which is backed by the state, is among ZTE’s biggest shareholders. Further, Huawei and ZTE are expected to play key roles in China’s effort to develop 5G technology.

6. So is ZTE saved at this point?

It’s not clear yet. ZTE shares plunged as they resumed trading June 13, falling as much as 41 percent. Although the company can begin buying from American suppliers again, investors remain concerned about the distraction of a management overhaul, the challenge of finding appropriate candidates in a short time frame and its ability to regain credibility in global markets. Larger rival Huawei also continues to gain market share in smartphones and networking. Meanwhile, there’s no guarantee U.S. lawmakers won’t come back with further sanctions. The U.S. Senate has advanced legislation to restore penalties on ZTE, voting 91-4 this week to begin debate on the National Defense Authorization Act, including an amendment that will keep restrictions on ZTE. The provision was included on a list of amendments that is backed by both Republicans and Democrats.

• Bloomberg News article on the resumption of trading at ZTE.

• U.S. lawmakers work to restore penalties on ZTE.

• QuickTake on the trade spat between the U.S. and China.

• Wilbur Ross statement on the 7-year technology ban.

To contact Bloomberg News staff for this story: Gao Yuan in Beijing at

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Robert Fenner at, Peter Elstrom, Grant Clark

©2018 Bloomberg L.P.