President Trump tried to bully schools into opening their buildings, a hard-edge pandemic tactic that succeeded in places and backfired elsewhere. President-elect Joe Biden is hoping to pry them open with money for increased coronavirus expenses and clear guidance on how in-person schooling can resume safely, a shift that signals a new era for education policy in the United States.

Under Trump, the Education Department has been led by Secretary Betsy DeVos, who alienated many by casting public schools as failures and promoting alternatives to them. Through executive action and negotiations with Congress, Biden wants to bolster public schools.

He has promised hundreds of billions of dollars in new education spending, for preschool through college. He has proposed college debt forgiveness. And he wants to overturn a controversial regulation on sexual harassment and assault that universities and others strongly opposed.

He has also promised to appoint an educator as education secretary and likes to tell people that a teacher will join him in the White House. Jill Biden, an English professor at a community college in Northern Virginia, has said she plans to continue teaching as first lady.

“Teaching isn’t just what she does — it’s who she is,” Joe Biden said Saturday in a victory speech after being declared the winner of the presidential race. “For America’s educators, this is a great day: You’re going to have one of your own in the White House.”

With the election results clear, transition teams for every federal agency are beginning the work of assessing the state of each department, cataloguing Biden’s promises, determining what can be done by executive action and what needs congressional action, and setting priorities.

Next secretary

President-elect Joe Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala D. Harris called for unity after being the projected winners of the 2020 election on Nov. 7. (The Washington Post)

For the Education Department, the transition committee is being led by Linda Darling-Hammond, president of the California State Board of Education, several people said. Darling-Hammond has also been talked about as a possible education secretary, though over the weekend she took herself out of consideration.

Biden has said he wants a diverse Cabinet, and many of those being touted or considered for education secretary are people of color. People familiar with the planning say those under consideration include two teachers-union leaders: Randi Weingarten, president of the American Federation of Teachers, and Lily Eskelsen García, former president of the National Education Association.

Democrats for Education Reform, a centrist group that supports Obama-era accountability measures, is pushing several names and hoping for a secretary who will be open to their views. That will be a challenge, given that Biden aligned himself closely with teachers unions, who oppose much of the group’s agenda. In an email to supporters obtained by Chalkbeat, the group’s president pointed to three big-city school leaders: Sonja Brookins Santelises of Baltimore City Public Schools, Janice K. Jackson of Chicago Public Schools and William Hite of the School District of Philadelphia.

Other names mentioned by people familiar with the process include Tony Thurmond, the California state superintendent of public instruction; Rep. Jahana Hayes (D-Conn.), a former national teacher of the year; Betty A. Rosa, interim commissioner of education in New York state; and Denise Juneau, superintendent of Seattle Public Schools.

Trump repeatedly proposed deep cuts to education that Congress rejected. Many of Biden’s promises require new spending, and they, too, will face head winds in Congress, particularly if the Senate remains under Republican control.

Biden has promised to triple spending for the $15 billion Title I program, which targets high-poverty schools. He has said he would double the number of psychologists, counselors, nurses and social workers in schools. He has promised new money for school infrastructure. And he has said he would dramatically increase federal spending for special education.

He also wants to fund universal prekindergarten for all 3- and 4-year-old children; make community college debt-free; and double Pell grants to help low-income students pay for college.

First up will be coronavirus-related spending, particularly if Congress has not passed a relief package before Inauguration Day. Some emergency funding for schools was approved in the spring, but the Trump administration has been unable to cut a legislative deal for additional money.

Biden has endorsed at least $88 billion to stabilize state education funding and help pay for protective equipment, ventilation systems, reduced class sizes and other expenses associated with operating school during the pandemic.

“Schools — they need a lot of money to open,” Biden said last month at the second presidential debate.

Weingarten, the union president, suggested that a coronavirus relief bill negotiated by Biden could wrap in some of the rest of his agenda, such as support for more school nurses or counselors. “There’s a real opportunity to meet the needs of children,” she said.

Biden also has promised to give schools “clear, consistent, effective national guidelines” for reopening. That process will begin Monday when the Biden transition team announces a committee of scientists and experts that will turn his campaign proposals on the pandemic into an “action blueprint.”

Trump simply demanded that schools reopen, saying it is better for children and for the economy. The pressure campaign succeeded in some places, with schools throughout Texas and Florida ordered to open. In other communities, his demands had the opposite effect, hardening teacher and parent opposition to going back.

Unraveling DeVos

On other fronts, the new administration is likely to undo many of the things that DeVos did and redo some of the Obama administration policies that DeVos undid.

DeVos rescinded Education Department guidance meant to reduce racial disparities in school discipline, for instance, something the incoming administration can reinstate. The Trump administration also spiked Obama-era guidance that offered protections for transgender students, including the right to use bathrooms corresponding with their gender identity. And it killed guidance on the use of affirmative action in college admissions.

Other likely reversals: a Justice Department lawsuit alleging discrimination against White and Asian students at Yale University; a ban on federal grant recipients from holding diversity training; and an investigation of Princeton University, launched after the university’s president spoke of institutional racism on campus.

“It’s a new day around this national conversation about race and equity . . . making sure communities are not intentionally or unintentionally left out of opportunities will be key,” said Tiffany Jones, senior director of ­higher-education policy at the nonprofit Education Trust.

Another huge target: a Title IX regulation giving students accused of sexual assault more due-process rights in investigations. This would require formal regulations or legislative action.

The Biden administration also needs to decide how it will handle student debt forgiveness and collections for millions of borrowers.

In March, the Trump administration imposed a 60-day moratorium on student debt collection that has been extended through December. Biden could try to reinstate the moratorium if it is not renewed again before he takes office.

More broadly, Biden promised to cancel at least $10,000 in student debt for every borrower in response to the recession. It is unclear, though, whether the new administration will try to do this on its own or work with Congress to codify it into legislation.

Separately, the new administration is expected to revive an Obama-era policy that allows the administration to cancel debt for students who were misled by their colleges about graduation or job placement rates. The Trump administration rewrote the regulation to make it harder for students to seek forgiveness.

The agency is also likely to restore the gainful-employment rule, which threatens to cut off federal student aid to vocational programs whose graduates consistently have high loan payments relative to their income.

Some observers expect the incoming administration to be even tougher on for-profit colleges than Obama was. Vice President-elect Kamala D. Harris was instrumental in bringing down Corinthian Colleges, a for-profit giant, when she was California attorney general and as a senator supported efforts to hold predatory for-profit colleges to account.

“Policies will be designed to protect students and taxpayers first,” predicted Dan Zibel, who worked at the Education Department under Obama and is now chief counsel at the National Student Legal Defense Network, a nonprofit organization he co-founded. He said that would probably include “taking harder stances against schools and companies using the financial aid system to scam students.”

Correction: A Web link to a previous Post article included above originally attributed the quote “Jill is always grading papers” to Barack Obama. The quote is from Michelle Obama.