An analysis of in-person events hosted by both campaigns since April shows that among the battleground states of the 2020 election cycle, Pennsylvania and Florida have the distinction of receiving the most campaign visits from the candidates, with Republicans more active in hosting in-person events during the pandemic era. President Trump and former vice president Joe Biden’s campaigns rallied in these crucial states more than a dozen times each over the last few months.

Where Trump and Pence have traveled

Trump

Pence

Mont.

Minn.

N.H.

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

R.I.

Pa.

Iowa

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Md.

Utah

Ind.

Va.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

S.C.

Ga.

Texas

La.

Fla.

Trump

Pence

Maine

Mont.

Minn.

N.H.

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

R.I.

Pa.

Iowa

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Md.

Utah

Ind.

Va.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

S.C.

Ga.

Texas

La.

Fla.

Trump

Pence

Maine

Mont.

Minn.

N.H.

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

R.I.

Pa.

Iowa

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Md.

Utah

Ind.

Va.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

S.C.

Ga.

Texas

La.

Fla.

Trump

Pence

Maine

Mont.

Minn.

N.H.

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

R.I.

Pa.

Iowa

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Md.

Utah

Ind.

Va.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

S.C.

Ga.

Texas

La.

Fla.

These swing states are key to both parties’ route to win the election. Winning Florida will boost Trump’s reelection chances, and securing Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Carolina virtually guarantees the president four more years in the White House. Trump’s campaign has hosted at least 58 public and in-person events in these swing states over the campaign.

His campaign has also hosted in-person events in Arizona, Michigan and Wisconsin, states which he won in 2016 but recent polls show as leaning in favor of the Democrats.

Meanwhile, flipping Florida and Pennsylvania, states that both voted for Trump in 2016, will almost certainly give the keys to the White House to Biden. “You hold the key. If Florida goes blue, it’s over,” Biden said to voters at a car rally on the campus of Broward College, a statement that has become a staple of his campaign in the closing weeks.

Where Biden and Harris have traveled

Biden

Harris

Wash.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Vt.

N.H.

Idaho

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

S.D.

Mass.

R.I.

Conn.

Wyo.

Pa.

Iowa

N.J.

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Del.

Md.

D.C.

Utah

Ind.

Ill.

W.Va.

Calif.

Colo.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ark.

S.C.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Texas

La.

Fla.

Alaska

Hawaii

Biden

Harris

Wash.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Vt.

N.H.

Idaho

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

S.D.

Mass.

R.I.

Conn.

Wyo.

Pa.

Iowa

N.J.

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Del.

Md.

D.C.

Utah

Ind.

Ill.

W.Va.

Calif.

Colo.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ark.

S.C.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Texas

La.

Fla.

Alaska

Hawaii

Biden

Harris

Wash.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Vt.

N.H.

Idaho

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

S.D.

Mass.

R.I.

Conn.

Wyo.

Pa.

Iowa

N.J.

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Del.

Md.

D.C.

Utah

Ind.

Ill.

W.Va.

Calif.

Colo.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ark.

S.C.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Texas

La.

Fla.

Alaska

Hawaii

Biden

Harris

Wash.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Vt.

N.H.

Idaho

Wis.

Mich.

N.Y.

S.D.

Mass.

R.I.

Conn.

Wyo.

Pa.

Iowa

N.J.

Neb.

Nev.

Ohio

Del.

Md.

D.C.

Utah

Ind.

Ill.

W.Va.

Calif.

Colo.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ark.

S.C.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Texas

La.

Fla.

Alaska

Hawaii

Biden has sought to address a key criticism of Hillary Clinton’s 2016 campaign by focusing on winning back the key swing states of Michigan, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. Biden’s team has made several stops in these states over the past two months.

Biden addressed voters in Pennsylvania seven times over the last two weeks, and he rallied with former president Barack Obama in Detroit.

Trump’s campaign has been more consistent in its strategy. Despite the virus, the rallies, the crowd and the message are similar to the ones that elected him in 2016.


President Trump gestures during a campaign rally Thursday in Tampa. (Chris O'Meara/AP)

In mid-June, with cases spiking nationwide, Trump hosted rallies in Orlando and Tulsa. The president chose Florida to formally announce his reelection bid on June 18, 2019, during the rally in Orlando.

Trump, as well as Biden, have not only campaigned in large cities. They have also visited smaller cities such as Allentown, Pa., or La Crosse, Wis., to capitalize on the attention of local media. In September, Biden took Amtrak on a multi-stop trip to campaign in rural areas such as Greensburg and Latrobe in Pennsylvania.

For the Trump campaign, the president’s covid-19 diagnosis and subsequent hospitalization for treatment in the first week of October barely slowed the pace of large in-person events — frequently held with few physical distancing precautions and large numbers of attendees without masks.

Timeline of visits of the Republican campaign

Electoral college votes

10

20

30

Electoral college ratings

Lean

Republican

Lean

Democrat

Toss up

Trump

Pa.

Pa.

Nov.

Fla.

Mich.

Fla.

Mich.

N.C.

N.C.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Ariz.

Fla.

N.C.

N.C.

N.C.

N.C.

Ariz.

Pa.

Fla.

Ga.

Ohio

Fla.

Pa.

N.C.

Iowa

Fla.

Fla.

Oct.

Fla.

Ohio

N.C.

Fla.

Ohio

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

N.C.

Sept.

Ariz.

Pa.

Trump

hospitalized

Wis.

Pa.

Ohio

Aug.

Fla.

Fla.

Pa.

Pa.

Tex.

Tex.

Ga.

Fla.

Fla.

July

Tex.

June

Maine

Fla.

Mich.

Mich.

Pa.

May

Ariz.

Pence

Nov.

Pa.

Pa.

N.C.

N.C.

Pa.

Pa.

Ohio

Mich.

Fla.

Ariz.

Oct.

Iowa

Iowa

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Sept.

N.C.

Pa.

Aug.

Fla.

Fla.

Wis.

Pa.

July

Iowa

Pa.

June

Md.

Ga.

Iowa

May

Wis.

April

Va.

Electoral college votes

10

20

30

Electoral college ratings

Lean

Republican

Lean

Democrat

Toss up

Trump

Iowa

Ga.

Mich.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Nov.

Mich.

Wis.

Pa.

Fla.

Mich.

Ariz.

N.C.

N.C.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Ariz.

N.C.

N.C.

Wis.

Mich.

N.C.

N.C.

Ariz.

Pa.

Fla.

Ga.

Ohio

Fla.

Pa.

Iowa

Wis.

Fla.

Oct.

Fla.

Minn.

Va.

Pa.

N.C.

Fla.

Pa.

Wis.

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

N.C.

Sept.

Ariz.

N.C.

Wis.

N.C.

Trump

hospitalized

Pa.

Wis.

Ariz.

Iowa

Ariz.

Ohio

Ohio

Aug.

Fla.

Fla.

Pa.

Pa.

Tex.

Tex.

Ga.

Fla.

July

Wis.

Ariz.

Tex.

June

Maine

Fla.

Mich.

Mich.

Pa.

May

Ariz.

Pence

Nov.

Pa.

N.C.

Pa.

Ariz.

N.C.

S.C.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

N.C.

Mich.

Ariz.

Oct.

Iowa

Pa.

Wis.

Ohio

N.Y.

Pa.

Pa.

Wis.

Sept.

N.C.

Pa.

Pa.

Mich.

Aug.

Fla.

Fla.

Fla.

Ind.

S.C.

Wis.

Pa.

July

Iowa

Pa.

June

Md.

Ga.

Iowa

May

Ind.

Wis.

April

Va.

Electoral college votes

20

30

10

Electoral college ratings

Lean Republican

Lean Democrat

Toss up

Trump

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

N.C.

Wis.

Ariz.

Wis.

Pa.

Mich.

Mich.

Ohio

Ariz.

Ariz.

N.C.

N.C.

Ga.

Fla.

Minn.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Minn.

Fla.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Va.

N.C.

Fla.

Ohio

Maine

Pa.

N.H.

Wis.

Ga.

Fla.

Ariz.

Fla.

Minn.

Wis.

Tex.

N.H.

Iowa

Tex.

Mich.

Pa.

Fla.

Wis.

Minn.

Fla.

Minn.

Nev.

Fla.

Fla.

Mich.

Fla.

Pa.

N.C.

Ariz.

Ariz.

N.C.

Mich.

Pa.

Pa.

Ohio

Tex.

Fla.

Fla.

Tenn.

Ariz.

Ariz.

Wis.

Tex.

Pa.

Mich.

Pa.

N.C.

N.C.

Maine

Pa.

Wis.

Mich.

Ohio

Ga.

N.C.

Wis.

Ohio

N.C.

Tex.

Pa.

Wis.

Fla.

Fla.

Ohio

Pa.

Mich.

N.C.

Pa.

Iowa

Wis.

Neb.

N.C.

Wis.

Pa.

Pa.

Ariz.

Mich.

Ariz.

Ga.

N.C.

Trump

hospitalized

Iowa

Pence

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Wis.

Pa.

Ohio

Wis.

Mich.

Pa.

Ariz.

Fla.

N.C.

Mich.

S.C.

Wis.

N.Y.

Fla.

Nev.

Okla.

Ohio

Minn.

N.C.

Wis.

Pa.

Minn.

Mont.

Fla.

Fla.

Pa.

N.H.

Pa.

Iowa

Md.

Pa.

Iowa

Iowa

Wis.

N.C.

Va.

Ga.

Pa.

Wis.

Ind.

Pa.

N.H.

Ariz.

Pa.

Iowa

Fla.

Va.

Ind.

Ind.

Mich.

Ariz.

Pa.

Ariz.

Iowa

Iowa

La.

Ariz.

Wis.

Maine

Pa.

Wis.

Wis.

Ohio

Ariz.

S.C.

Pa.

Mich.

Wis.

Iowa

Ohio

Iowa

Utah

N.C.

N.C.

Pa.

N.C.

Electoral college votes

10

20

30

Electoral college ratings

Lean Democrat

Toss up

Lean Republican

Trump

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

N.C.

Wis.

Ariz.

Wis.

Pa.

Mich.

Mich.

Ohio

Ariz.

Ariz.

N.C.

N.C.

Ga.

Fla.

Minn.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Minn.

Fla.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Va.

N.C.

Fla.

Ohio

Maine

Pa.

N.H.

Wis.

Ga.

Fla.

Ariz.

Fla.

Minn.

Wis.

Tex.

N.H.

Iowa

Tex.

Mich.

Pa.

Fla.

Wis.

Minn.

Fla.

Minn.

Nev.

Fla.

Fla.

Mich.

Fla.

Pa.

N.C.

Ariz.

Ariz.

N.C.

Mich.

Pa.

Pa.

Ohio

Tex.

Fla.

Fla.

Tenn.

Ariz.

Ariz.

Wis.

Tex.

Pa.

Mich.

Pa.

N.C.

N.C.

Maine

Pa.

Wis.

Mich.

Ohio

Ga.

N.C.

Wis.

Ohio

N.C.

Tex.

Pa.

Wis.

Fla.

Fla.

Ohio

Pa.

Mich.

N.C.

Pa.

Iowa

Wis.

Neb.

N.C.

Wis.

Pa.

Pa.

Ariz.

Mich.

Ariz.

Ga.

N.C.

Trump

hospitalized

Iowa

Pence

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Wis.

Pa.

Ohio

Wis.

Mich.

Pa.

Ariz.

Fla.

N.C.

Mich.

S.C.

Wis.

N.Y.

Fla.

Okla.

Nev.

Ohio

Minn.

N.C.

Wis.

Pa.

Minn.

Mont.

Fla.

Fla.

Pa.

N.H.

Pa.

Iowa

Md.

Pa.

Iowa

Iowa

Wis.

N.C.

Va.

Ga.

Pa.

Wis.

Ind.

Pa.

N.H.

Ariz.

Pa.

Iowa

Fla.

Va.

Ind.

Ind.

Mich.

Ariz.

Pa.

Ariz.

Iowa

La.

Iowa

Ariz.

Wis.

Maine

Pa.

Wis.

Wis.

Ohio

Ariz.

S.C.

Pa.

Mich.

Wis.

Iowa

Ohio

Iowa

Utah

N.C.

N.C.

Pa.

N.C.

In contrast, Biden’s campaign showed a more cautious approach. The campaign didn’t host any in-person events during the summer when many parts of the country were in the middle of a surge in reported cases. Only during the last two months have Biden and his running mate, Sen. Kamala D. Harris (Calif.), campaigned repeatedly in crucial states such as Pennsylvania, Florida or Michigan.

Timeline of visits of the Democratic campaign

Electoral college votes

10

20

30

Electoral college ratings

Lean

Republican

Lean

Democrat

Toss up

Biden

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Nov.

Wis.

Pa.

Fla.

Fla.

Pa.

Ga.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Fla.

Ohio

Oct.

Fla.

Pa.

Nev.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Fla.

N.Y.

Mich.

Pa.

Sept.

Pa.

Pa.

Wis.

Aug.

Del.

Pa.

Pa.

July

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

June

Del.

Pa.

Harris

Pa.

Nov.

Pa.

Tex.

Tex.

Fla.

Tex.

Ariz.

Fla.

N.C.

Nev.

Ga.

N.C.

Nev.

Fla.

N.C.

Oct.

Mich.

Pa.

Fla.

Sept.

Wis.

D.C.

Aug.

Electoral college votes

10

20

30

Electoral college ratings

Lean

Republican

Lean

Democrat

Toss up

Biden

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Nov.

Pa.

Fla.

Wis.

Fla.

Pa.

Pa.

Mich.

Ga.

Pa.

Mich.

Fla.

Ohio

Pa.

Ohio

Fla.

Mich.

Ohio

Ariz.

Ohio

Oct.

Fla.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Pa.

Wis.

Pa.

Fla.

Fla.

N.Y.

Pa.

Sept.

Pa.

Wis.

Pa.

Wis.

Wis.

Aug.

Del.

Pa.

Pa.

July

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

June

Del.

Pa.

Harris

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Nov.

Tex.

N.C.

Ga.

Ariz.

Tex.

Fla.

Tex.

Fla.

Ariz.

Ariz.

Mich.

N.C.

Nev.

Nev.

Ga.

N.C.

N.C.

Fla.

Fla.

Utah

Ariz.

Oct.

Nev.

N.C.

N.C.

Mich.

Mich.

Mich.

Pa.

Fla.

Wis.

Sept.

D.C.

Aug.

Electoral college votes

20

30

10

Electoral college ratings

Lean Republican

Lean Democrat

Toss up

Biden

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Fla.

N.C.

Fla.

Mich.

Nev.

Mich.

Mich.

Minn.

Ohio

Ohio

Tenn.

Pa.

Pa.

Minn.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Del.

Fla.

Ohio

Iowa

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Del.

Pa.

Wis.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Wis.

Wis.

Mich.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Mich.

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Mich.

N.Y.

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Fla.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Ariz.

Ga.

Pa.

Wis.

Wis.

Ohio

Harris

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Fla.

Ariz.

N.C.

N.C.

Mich.

Ga.

N.C.

Ariz.

N.C.

Tex.

Utah

Pa.

N.C.

Nev.

Fla.

D.C.

Mich.

Tex.

Fla.

Nev.

Ariz.

N.C.

Pa.

Mich.

Wis.

N.C.

Fla.

Fla.

Mich.

Pa.

Fla.

N.C.

Pa.

Ga.

Tex.

Nev.

Ariz.

Electoral college votes

10

20

30

Electoral college ratings

Lean Republican

Lean Democrat

Toss up

Biden

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Fla.

N.C.

Fla.

Mich.

Nev.

Mich.

Mich.

Minn.

Ohio

Ohio

Tenn.

Pa.

Pa.

Minn.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Del.

Fla.

Ohio

Iowa

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Del.

Pa.

Wis.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Wis.

Wis.

Mich.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Fla.

Pa.

Mich.

Pa.

Ohio

Pa.

Mich.

N.Y.

Fla.

Pa.

Ohio

Fla.

Pa.

Pa.

Pa.

Ariz.

Ga.

Pa.

Wis.

Wis.

Ohio

Harris

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Fla.

Ariz.

N.C.

N.C.

Mich.

Ga.

N.C.

Ariz.

N.C.

Tex.

Utah

Pa.

N.C.

Nev.

Fla.

D.C.

Mich.

Tex.

Fla.

Nev.

Ariz.

N.C.

Pa.

Mich.

Wis.

N.C.

Fla.

Fla.

Mich.

Pa.

Fla.

N.C.

Pa.

Ga.

Tex.

Nev.

Ariz.

Instead, Democrats tried to take their events online. Over the last few months, Biden and Harris participated in more than 50 online events such as town halls or meetings with political groups and voters.


Joe Biden, accompanied by his granddaughter Natalie Biden, speaks to people outside a campaign center in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., on Thursday. (Andrew Harnik/AP)

Unlike Clinton, Biden and Harris limited their in-person campaign events in red states that could flip and instead worked to shore up support in battleground states that will decide the election. In the past week though, Harris has scheduled events in Texas, a traditionally red state, where Democrats hope to take advantage of changing demographics and antipathy toward Trump.

Armand Emamdjomeh contributed to this report.

Candidate illustrations by Ben Kirchner for The Washington Post.

About this story

Events data from Washington Post reporting, C-SPAN campaign event tracker and Ballotpedia. Race ratings from the Cook Political Report. Only in-person public events such as rallies, speeches or visits where the candidate addressed specific voters have been considered for this analysis. Remarks to the press, news conferences or events in the cities the candidates live such as Wilmington, Del., or Washington have not been considered for the analysis. Fundraising events, live chats, kickoff calls and video calls are not included. Events have been collected between April 1 and Nov. 2.