The Washington Post

‘A Most Imperfect Union,’ a retelling of U.S. history by Ilan Stavans and Lalo Alcaraz

“Enough with the dead white men!”

So goes the opening salvo from a Mexican-born Jewish immigrant and a California cartoonist of Latino descent in “A Most Imperfect Union: A Contrarian History of the United States.” This illustrated reexamination of a continent’s “conquering” aims to turn schoolhouse narratives into academic-canon fodder. Just in time for Independence Day, Amherst College professor Ilan Stavans and “La Cucaracha” comic creator Lalo Alcaraz have come to make a statement against the republic’s accepted pale-male tales by intellectually dumping all those dog-eared capital-T Textbooks into our national waters. Their new battle cry: Out with the old; in with the red, nonwhite and blue.

What the authors seek to paint is a “colorful group portrait of these United States” — in every sense of that phrase. In their view, history is written not by the winners, necessarily, but by the biggest sinners: the robber barons and the murderers who stooped to any infernal depth to conquer.

Stavans and Alcaraz collaborated nearly 15 years ago on “Latino USA: A Cartoon History,” and now they want to turn up the volume on the “muted reverence” for our Founding Fathers. Stavans writes in the foreword that his “contrarianism is intimately linked to [his] experience as an immigrant” and that this book, by speaking for the dispossessed, has “a single, controlling leitmotif: the idea of creative destruction.”

Let this Bill of Rewrites begin.

“A Most Imperfect Union: A Contrarian History of the United States” by Ilan Stavans and illustrated by Lalo Alcaraz. (Basic)

The authors have constructed much of this book as call-and-response, with Stavans as cartoon character functioning as the storyteller and Alcaraz’s character delivering cutting punch lines from his drafting (or in this case, redrafting) table. Alcaraz mirrors this dynamic with his mash-up art: The historical figures are typically rendered with a certain cartoon realism, while much of the rest of the action is drawn in a simple, iconic style. This heightens the sense of play and the feeling that nothing lampoons quite like a sharp-tongued cartoon. (A telling example: When John Quincy Adams cites “divine providence” for continental domination, a modern-day character replies in an aside: “And you Gringos wonder why everyone hates you.”)

Stavans and Alcaraz have also made a conscious choice to run contrary to the textbook style and ditch chronology whenever they find a tempting tangent. This, like the Greek chorus-like one-liners, breaks up any sense of a plodding history lesson.

“A Most Imperfect Union” is hardly the first comic work to subvert and satirize history, of course. Larry Gonick published his “Cartoon History of . . .” books decades ago; Canadian cartoonist Kate Beaton brilliantly spoofs famous past figures in “Hark! A Vagrant”; and even I attempted to twist history for laughs in my syndicated comic “Warped.” But Stavans and Alcaraz have announced themselves as creative explorers on a higher cultural mission, and therein lies the challenge.

“A Most Imperfect Union” is at its best when telling those tales of the dispossessed, such as the true story of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, a Muslim who was captured by fellow Africans, sold into the Atlantic slave trade and taken to Annapolis before his attempted escape led to a court case that resulted in his return to Gambia. These profiles are painted with compelling humanity.

What the book could use less of, ironically, is the retelling of all the Founding Father stories we already know so well. Why rehash all this, unless the authors’ point is to lend credence to a few of their contrarian facts. (Example: “Imperfect Union” says Thomas Jefferson fathered one child by his slave Sally Hemings; some scholars, though, say there were as many as six.) But then, part of the pure joy of plunging into history itself is debating whose version gets told, and how.

“Imperfect Union” is truest to its own stated cartoon conquest when it plumbs lesser-known stories — and actually lives up to its battle cry of saying “Enough!” of focusing solely on those great dead white men.

Cavna is the columnist/cartoonist of The Washington Post’s “Comic Riffs.”


A Contrarian History of the United States

By Ilan Stavans. Illustrated by Lalo Alcaraz

Basic. 269 pp. $26.99

Writer/artist/visual storyteller Michael Cavna is creator of the "Comic Riffs" column and graphic-novel reviewer for The Post's Book World. He relishes sharp-eyed satire in most any form.



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