Jonathan Demme, a Hollywood filmmaker who reached his commercial apex in the early 1990s with the Oscar-winning thriller “The Silence of the Lambs” and the AIDS discrimination drama “Philadelphia,” and who also made one of the most compelling rock music documentaries of all time, died April 26 at his home in New York. He was 73.

The cause was complications from esophageal cancer, his publicists confirmed in a statement.

After an apprenticeship with the exploitation king Roger Corman, grinding out low-budget, lurid fare with underclothed women, Mr. Demme built a genre-crossing career that showcased his versatility.

His portfolio encompassed offbeat blue-collar films such as “Handle With Care” (1977) and “Melvin and Howard” (1980) and enjoyable if anodyne Hollywood dramas and comedies from the 1980s (“Swing Shift,” “Something Wild,” “Married to the Mob”). He also developed a thriving sideline in documentary work that allowed him to indulge what he called his “obsessive interest in rock and roll.”

From his revered musical documentary “Stop Making Sense” (1984), about the Talking Heads, to “Rachel Getting Married” (2008), a dysunctional-family drama starring Anne Hathaway, his films shared an affectionate generosity toward even the most shambolic characters.

Director Jonathan Demme poses with television personality Oprah Winfrey in 2004. (Evan Agostini)

“Very few directors have had Demme’s delicate intuitive feel for the ragged texture of life out of the mainstream,” Washington Post film critic Hal Hinson once wrote, “for the way we talk and separate and make love; for the look of lunch counters, bathrooms, and gas stations. Demme suffuses the people in his films with a warm acceptance, but he stands back as well, looking on with appreciation and detachment. This balance gives his films a floating, bemused quality that never seems sticky or cloying, a sense of events seen in their proper proportions.”

His creative mid-career peak was “The Silence of the Lambs” (1991). As sleekly executed as it was frightening, the movie starred Anthony Hopkins as the Chianti-loving cannibal Hannibal Lecter aiding the FBI in hunting down another serial killer. New York Times film critic Vincent Canby declared it “pop film making of a high order.” It swept the Oscars, winning best picture, best director, best actor (Hopkins) and best actress (Jodie Foster as an FBI employee).

Mr. Demme’s reward was a studio prestige project, “Philadelphia” (1993). It was one of the first major Hollywood films to address the AIDS crisis, but reviewers said the film was marred by a predictable, self-conscious seriousness and a script that seldom went beyond obvious heroes and villains.

The movie benefited enormously from an Oscar-winning performance by Tom Hanks as a gay white-collar lawyer who is fired when it is revealed he has contracted AIDS. Denzel Washington was the lawyer who, despite his initial prejudice against homosexuals, helps him defeat the establishment. (Mr. Demme had his friends Bruce Springsteen and Neil Young contribute songs for the soundtrack; Springsteen won an Oscar for his song, “Streets of Philadelphia.”)

In his subsequent Hollywood directing jobs, Mr. Demme displayed technical competence but professed a certain joylessness in making “Beloved” (1998), a version of the Toni Morrison novel that starred Oprah Winfrey, and “The Truth About Charlie” (2002) and “The Manchurian Candidate” (2004), both remakes of vastly superior films from the 1960s.

He acknowledged, however, that they essentially allowed him to fund passion projects such as “Stop Making Sense.”

Regarded as a seminal contribution to its genre, “Stop Making Sense” took advantage of new digital recording technology and shunned hackneyed conventions of the form: audience reaction shots, interviews with bandmates and music critics, an emphasis on sybaritic lifestyle and personality.

Actress Anne Hathaway and director Jonathan Demme attend the “Rachel Getting Married” film premiere in 2008 in Venice, Italy. (Pascal Le Segretain)

With exhilarating clarity and sharp intelligence, Mr. Demme captured the intimate interplay. onstage and off, of the bandmates — always in service of the music.

“Many great directors have tried their hand at concert films, but few could match Demme’s skill at capturing their joy and their celebration of communal creation,” according to Rolling Stone magazine. “Taken together, his concert docs are one of the great collective odes — not just to making music but to being alive.”

For his part, Mr. Demme spoke of the concert film as the “purest form of filmmaking,” with no script, no advance planning, just the response of the camera to the action. He made several documentary films featuring Young (“Heart of Gold,” “Neil Young Trunk Show,” “Neil Young Journeys”), as well as a documentary of the British singer-songwriter Robyn Hitchcock (“Storefront Hitchcock,” 1998). The pop singer Justin Timberlake, a fan of “Stop Making Sense,” sought out Mr. Demme to make “Justin Timberlake + the Tennessee Kids” (2016).

In addition, Mr. Demme directed a documentary of the performance artist and monologuist Spalding Gray (“Swimming to Cambodia,” 1987) as well as “Jimmy Carter Man from Plains” (2007), focused on Carter’s post-presidential years.

Perhaps Mr. Demme’s finest political documentary was “The Agronomist” (2003), about the Haitian radio journalist and human rights activist Jean Dominique. The film is essentially the story of a death foretold, with Dominique continuing his anti-corruption broadcasts in the face of threats. New York Times film critic A.O. Scott called it “magnificent.”

Mr. Demme told the London Guardian that he felt refreshed by documentary work and that when he made “Rachel Getting Married,” he shot it as if it were a nonfiction work.

“We pretended that what the actors were doing was reality, and we responded to it as we would in any documentary,” he said. “We never did a take-two of any shot; we did the scenes a number of times, but always from a new perspective. The actors loved it, because the more you do a take, the more you’re going to drain the spontaneity out of a performance.”

Robert Jonathan Demme (pronounced DEM-ee) was born in Baldwin, on Long Island, on Feb. 22, 1944. He completed high school in Miami, where his father worked as a publicist for the Fontainebleau Hotel and other businesses.

He planned to study veterinary medicine at the University of Florida, but he said he “couldn’t hack” the science classes. “After I failed chemistry,” he told The Washington Post, “I realized that there was no movie critic on the Florida Alligator, the college newspaper there, so to feed my moviegoing habit I offered my services.”

Through his father’s intercession, he did publicity in New York for the film producer Joseph E. Levine, while also writing rock reviews and making experimental short films. After a stint in England to produce commercials, he was hired by Corman as a publicist and scriptwriter. He made his solo directorial debut with “Caged Heat” (1974), a women-in-prison drama.

Mr. Demme made a leap into the mainstream with “Handle With Care,” a big-studio comedy about CB radio fanatics. But his breakthrough was “Melvin and Howard,” about the life-altering aftermath of an encounter between gas station owner Melvin Dummar (Paul Le Mat) and a hobo claiming to be the billionaire Howard Hughes (Jason Robards Jr.).

The National Society of Film Critics named “Melvin and Howard” best picture of the year, and Mr. Demme received a New York Film Critics award for his directing. Writer Bo Goldman and supporting actress Mary Steenburgen — as Dummar’s on-again, off-again wife — won Academy Awards.

Mr. Demme’s first marriage, to Evelyn Purcell, ended in divorce. Survivors include his wife, Joanne Howard, and their three children.

In 2004, Mr. Demme told the London Independent that working on major Hollywood movies did not make him a better director. “Most of your time is spent trying to fashion something with the widest possible appeal,” he said. But he acknowledged that, after four decades, there were rewards. “Now I’ve got creative control. And you should see how easy it is to get a table in restaurants.”

CORRECTION: An earlier version of this obituary incorrectly reported that Mr. Demme attended the University of Miami. It was the University of Florida. The story has been revised.