This November, voters in 37 states will face 155 ballot questions. Taxation and bonds are common nationwide. Other ballots are more state-specific. An Alabama ballot measure would add a state constitutional amendment for the right to display the ten commandments on public property. Idaho voters will weigh betting on historic horse racing, and Missourians will decide on bingo game management. In many states, however, ballot questions echo larger national trends.

Voters in West Virginia and Oregon will decide whether to amend their state constitutions to limit Medicaid abortion funding to cases of life endangerment, rape and incest, the minimum federal requirement. Officials in both states had tried to curb Medicaid funds for abortion, but state courts overruled them. This is the third attempt to cut the funding by ballot initiative in Oregon and the first in West Virginia. Both states, like many others, require a simple majority to amend the state constitution.

Medicaid funds all

or most abortions

Voluntarily

HI

NY

IL

MD

WA

By court order

AZ

AK

CA

CT

MA

MN

MT

NJ

WV

NM

OR

VT

Medicaid funding for abortion only where

life endangerment, rape and incest

AL

GA

KY

MS

NV

SC

VA

AR

IA

LA

NC

OH

SD

WI

CO

ID

ME

ND

OK

TN

WY

DE

IN

NE

PA

MI

TX

FL

KS

MO

NH

RI

UT

Medicaid funds all

or most abortions

Voluntarily

HI

NY

IL

MD

WA

By court order

AZ

AK

CA

CT

MA

MN

MT

NJ

WV

NM

OR

VT

Medicaid funding for abortion only where

life endangerment, rape and incest

AL

GA

KY

MS

NV

SC

VA

AR

IA

LA

NC

OH

SD

WI

CO

ID

ME

ND

OK

TN

WY

DE

IN

NE

PA

MI

TX

FL

KS

MO

NH

RI

UT

Medicaid funds all

or most abortions

Medicaid funding for abortion only where

life endangerment, rape and incest

Voluntarily

By court order

AK

HI

AL

GA

KY

MS

NV

SC

VA

MN

VT

AZ

WV

IL

AR

IA

LA

NC

OH

SD

WI

MT

CA

NJ

CO

ID

ME

ND

OK

TN

WY

MD

DE

IN

NE

PA

NY

CT

NM

MI

TX

WA

FL

KS

MO

NH

RI

UT

OR

MA

Ballot measure to restrict medicaid funding

Medicaid funds all

or most abortions

voluntarily

Medicaid funds all or most

abortion funding

through court order

Medicaid funding for abortion only where

life endangerment, rape and incest

AK

AL

FL

IN

HI

WA

MA

NM

ME

NC

NV

RI

TX

WY

AZ

IL

AR

GA

KS

ND

UT

MN

OR

MI

OH

SC

CA

CO

KY

SD

VA

MD

MT

VT

IA

MO

NE

OK

CT

NJ

WV

ID

LA

WI

NY

DE

MS

NH

PA

TN

980px

Ballot measure to restrict medicaid funding

Medicaid funds all

or most abortions

voluntarily

Medicaid funds all or most

abortion funding

through court order

Medicaid funding for abortion only where

life endangerment, rape and incest

AK

AL

FL

IN

HI

WA

MA

NM

ME

NC

NV

RI

TX

WY

AZ

IL

AR

GA

KS

ND

UT

MN

OR

MI

OH

SC

CA

CO

KY

SD

VA

MD

MT

VT

IA

MO

NE

OK

CT

NJ

WV

ID

LA

WI

NY

DE

MS

NH

PA

TN

West Virginia’s referendum goes beyond Medicaid funding. Similar to a successful Tennessee ballot measure in 2014, it also adds a constitutional amendment that would establish that a woman has no right to abortion. “West Virginia is laying the groundwork for more restrictions at the state level,” says Elizabeth Nash of the Guttmacher Institute. The amendment, if adopted, would protect laws restricting abortion if challenged in state courts. The 1973 Supreme Court Roe v. Wade decision legalized abortion nationwide, superseding any state laws. If Roe were overturned, the amendment would make it “very difficult to support abortion rights,” says Nash.

In Alabama, voters are deciding on a constitutional amendment that would define personhood as beginning at conception and make clear the state recognizes no right to abortion. If passed, the measure could affect contraception, inheritance, the criminal code and in-vitro fertilization, among other things, Nash said. The measure has failed four times in three other states.

Michigan and North Dakota have recreational marijuana on the ballot this fall. If passed, they would be the first states with Republican-controlled legislatures to legalize marijuana for recreational use. Utah and Missouri, also Republican strongholds, have ballot measures to legalize medical marijuana.

1996

Legalized medical marijuana

CA

Legalized medical and

recreational marijuana

1998

WA

AK

CA

OR

Legalization ballot measure

2000

WA

AK

ME

CO

CA

OR

NV

HI

2002

WA

AK

ME

CO

CA

OR

NV

HI

2004

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

2006

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

2008

RI

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

MI

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

2010

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

CA

OR

NJ

DC

NV

HI

VT

NM

2012

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

2014

ME

CO

MT

DE

MD

IL

WA

AK

RI

MI

AZ

CT

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

2016

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

PA

OH

2018

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

LA

MO

NV

HI

VT

NM

MA

NH

MN

OH

UT

CA

OR

NJ

DC

NY

PA

WV

OK

Legalized medical marijuana

1996

CA

Legalized medical and

recreational marijuana

WA

AK

1998

CA

OR

Legalization ballot measure

WA

AK

ME

CO

2000

CA

OR

NV

HI

WA

AK

ME

CO

2002

CA

OR

NV

HI

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

2004

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

2006

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

RI

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

MI

2008

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

2010

CA

OR

NJ

DC

NV

HI

VT

NM

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

2012

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

ME

CO

MT

DE

MD

IL

WA

AK

RI

MI

AZ

CT

2014

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

2016

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

PA

OH

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

LA

MO

2018

NV

HI

VT

NM

MA

NH

MN

OH

UT

CA

OR

NJ

DC

NY

PA

WV

OK

1996

Legalized medical marijuana

CA

WA

AK

Legalized medical and

recreational marijuana

1998

CA

OR

Legalization ballot measure

WA

AK

ME

CO

2000

CA

OR

NV

HI

WA

AK

ME

CO

2002

CA

OR

NV

HI

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

2004

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

2006

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

RI

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

MI

2008

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

2010

NJ

DC

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

2012

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

ME

CO

MT

DE

MD

IL

WA

AK

RI

MI

AZ

CT

2014

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

2016

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

PA

OH

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

LA

MO

2018

NV

HI

VT

NM

MA

NH

MN

OH

UT

CA

OR

NJ

DC

NY

PA

WV

OK

Legalized medical marijuana

1996

CA

Legalized medical and

recreational marijuana

WA

AK

1998

CA

OR

Legalization ballot measure

WA

AK

ME

CO

2000

CA

OR

NV

HI

WA

AK

ME

CO

2002

CA

OR

NV

HI

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

2004

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

2006

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

RI

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

MI

2008

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

2010

NJ

DC

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

2012

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

ME

CO

MT

DE

MD

IL

WA

AK

RI

MI

AZ

CT

2014

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

2016

CA

OR

NV

HI

VT

NM

NJ

DC

MA

NY

NH

MN

PA

OH

WA

AK

ME

CO

MT

RI

MI

AZ

DE

CT

MD

IL

ND

FL

AR

LA

MO

2018

NV

HI

VT

NM

MA

NH

MN

OH

UT

CA

OR

NJ

DC

NY

PA

WV

OK

Legalized medical marijuana

Legalized medical and

recreational marijuana

Legalization ballot measure

MO

UT

LA

OK

WV

AR

AR

FL

OH

FL

OH

ND

PA

ND

PA

IL

MN

IL

MN

IL

MN

MD

NH

MD

NH

MD

NH

CT

CT

NY

CT

NY

CT

NY

DE

MA

DE

MA

DE

MA

DE

MA

AZ

DC

AZ

DC

AZ

DC

AZ

DC

AZ

DC

MI

MI

NJ

MI

NJ

MI

NJ

MI

NJ

MI

NJ

RI

RI

NM

RI

NM

RI

NM

RI

NM

RI

NM

RI

NM

MT

VT

MT

VT

MT

VT

MT

VT

MT

VT

MT

VT

MT

VT

MT

VT

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

CO

HI

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

ME

NV

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

AK

OR

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

WA

CA

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

In the past decade, the number of states with legalized medical marijuana has doubled, from 15 to 30 and the District of Columbia. Legalization of recreational marijuana has similarly skyrocketed, from two states in 2012 to nine states and D.C. today, although it still remains confined predominantly to the West Coast and Northeast. A recent Pew study shows that 62 percent of Americans support legalization, up from 31 percent in 2000. With these ballot initiatives, full legalization may move further inland.

Marijuana legalization

Medical only

Medical and recreational

Legalization ballot measure

NH

NH

WA

WA

VT

VT

ME

ME

MT

MT

ND

MN

MN

OR

OR

MA

MA

ID

ID

WI

WI

NY

NY

SD

SD

RI

RI

WY

WY

MI

CT

CT

IA

IA

PA

PA

NE

NE

NJ

NJ

NV

NV

OH

OH

IL

IL

IN

IN

UT

UT

DE

DE

CO

CO

WV

WV

CA

CA

MD

MD

VA

VA

KS

KS

MO

KY

KY

DC

DC

NC

NC

TN

TN

OK

OK

AZ

AZ

SC

AR

AR

SC

NM

NM

GA

GA

AL

AL

MS

MS

TX

TX

LA

LA

AK

AK

FL

FL

HI

HI

Marijuana legalization

Medical only

Medical and recreational

Legalization ballot measure

NH

NH

WA

WA

VT

VT

ME

ME

MT

MT

ND

ND

MN

MN

OR

OR

MA

MA

ID

ID

WI

WI

NY

NY

SD

SD

RI

RI

MI

MI

WY

WY

CT

CT

IA

IA

PA

PA

NE

NE

NJ

NJ

NV

NV

OH

OH

IL

IL

IN

IN

UT

UT

DE

DE

CO

CO

WV

WV

CA

CA

MD

MD

VA

VA

KS

KS

MO

MO

KY

KY

DC

DC

NC

NC

TN

TN

OK

OK

AZ

AZ

SC

SC

AR

AR

NM

NM

GA

GA

AL

AL

MS

MS

AK

AK

TX

TX

LA

LA

FL

FL

HI

HI

Marijuana legalization

Medical only

Medical and recreational

Legalization ballot measure

Maine

N.H.

Wash.

Vt.

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Mass.

Idaho

Idaho

Wis.

N.Y.

S.D.

R.I.

Mich.

Wyo.

Conn.

Iowa

Pa.

Neb.

N.J.

Nev.

Ohio

Ill.

Ill.

Ind.

Utah

Del.

Colo.

W.Va.

Calif.

Md.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

D.C.

N.C.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ariz.

S.C.

S.C.

Ark.

Ark.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Alaska

Texas

Texas

La.

Fla.

Hawaii

Marijuana legalization

Medical only

Medical and recreational

Legalization ballot measure

N.H.

Wash.

Vt.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Mass.

Idaho

Idaho

Wis.

N.Y.

S.D.

R.I.

Mich.

Wyo.

Conn.

Iowa

Pa.

Neb.

N.J.

Nev.

Ohio

Ill.

Ill.

Ind.

Utah

Del.

Colo.

W.Va.

Calif.

Md.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

D.C.

N.C.

Tenn.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ariz.

S.C.

S.C.

Ark.

Ark.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Alaska

Texas

Texas

La.

Fla.

Hawaii

Marijuana legalization

Medical only

Medical and recreational

Legalization ballot measure

N.H.

Wash.

Vt.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Mass.

Idaho

Idaho

Wis.

N.Y.

S.D.

R.I.

Mich.

Wyo.

Conn.

Iowa

Pa.

Neb.

N.J.

Nev.

Ohio

Ill.

Ill.

Ind.

Utah

Del.

Colo.

W.Va.

Calif.

Md.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

D.C.

N.C.

Tenn.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ariz.

S.C.

S.C.

Ark.

Ark.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Alaska

Texas

Texas

La.

Fla.

Hawaii

Ahead of the 2020 census, Colorado, Michigan and Utah have ballot measures to create independent commissions for redistricting. In most states, legislators draw maps delineating federal and state legislative districts for the next decade.

Ballot measure for independent commission

Who creates redistricting maps for

congressional districts

Independent

commission

State legislators

AZ

CA

AR

FL

AL

CO

GA

IN

KS

IL

Other

commission

MA

KY

LA

MD

CT

CT

HI

HI

IA

IA

ID

ME

MI

MN

MO

NJ

NJ

NY

NY

WA

WA

MS

NC

NE

NH

NM

NV

Single

district

OK

OH

OR

AK

DE

MT

ND

RI

PA

SC

SD

WY

VT

TN

TX

UT

VA

WI

WV

Who creates redistricting maps for

state legislative districts

Independent

commission

State legislators

CA

AZ

AL

DE

FL

GA

IL

IN

KS

KY

LA

MA

MD

Other

commission

MI

MN

MS

AK

HI

MO

OH

NC

NE

ND

AR

IA

MT

PA

NH

NM

NV

CO

ID

NJ

WA

OK

OR

RI

NY

VT

CT

ME

SD

TN

SC

TX

UT

VA

WI

WV

WY

Ballot measure for independent commission

Who creates redistricting maps for

congressional districts

Independent

commission

Other

commission

State legislators

CT

CT

ID

AZ

CA

HI

HI

IA

IA

AR

FL

AL

CO

GA

IN

KS

IL

NJ

NJ

NY

NY

WA

WA

MA

KY

LA

MD

Single

district

ME

MI

MN

MO

AK

DE

MT

ND

MS

NC

NE

SD

WY

VT

NH

NM

NV

OK

OH

OR

RI

PA

SC

TN

TX

UT

VA

WI

WV

Who creates redistricting maps for

state legislative districts

Independent

commission

Other

commission

State legislators

CA

AZ

AL

DE

FL

GA

AK

HI

MO

OH

IL

IN

KS

KY

AR

IA

MT

PA

LA

MA

MD

CO

ID

NJ

WA

MI

MN

MS

NY

VT

CT

ME

NC

NE

ND

NH

NM

NV

OK

OR

RI

SD

TN

SC

TX

UT

VA

WI

WV

WY

Ballot measure for independent commission

Who creates redistricting maps for congressional districts

Independent

commission

Other

commission

Single

district

State legislators

CT

CT

ID

AZ

CA

HI

HI

IA

IA

AK

DE

MT

ND

AR

FL

AL

CO

SD

WY

VT

GA

IN

KS

IL

NJ

NJ

NY

NY

WA

WA

MA

KY

LA

MD

ME

MI

MN

MO

MS

NC

NE

NH

NM

NV

OK

OH

OR

RI

PA

SC

TN

TX

UT

VA

WI

WV

Who creates redistricting maps for state legislative districts

Independent

commission

Other

commission

State legislators

CA

AZ

AL

DE

FL

GA

AK

HI

MO

OH

IL

IN

KS

KY

AR

IA

MT

PA

LA

MA

MD

CO

ID

NJ

WA

MI

MN

MS

NY

VT

CT

ME

NC

NE

ND

NH

NM

NV

OK

OR

RI

SD

TN

SC

TX

UT

VA

WI

WV

WY

Ballot measure for independent commission

Who creates redistricting maps for congressional districts

Independent

commission

Other

commission

Single

district

State legislators

AL

GA

KY

ME

MS

NH

OH

PA

TN

VA

AZ

CT

CT

NJ

NJ

AK

SD

CA

AR

IL

LA

MI

NC

NM

OK

RI

TX

WI

HI

HI

NY

NY

DE

WY

CO

IN

MA

MN

NE

NV

OR

SC

UT

WV

IA

IA

WA

WA

MT

VT

FL

KS

MD

MO

ID

ND

Who creates redistricting maps for state legislative districts

Independent

commission

Other

commission

State legislators

AL

IL

LA

MI

NC

NH

OK

SC

TX

AZ

AK

HI

MO

OH

WI

DE

IN

MA

MN

ND

NM

OR

SD

UT

WV

CA

AR

IA

MT

PA

FL

KS

MD

MS

NE

NV

RI

TN

VA

WY

CO

ID

NJ

WA

NY

VT

GA

KY

CT

ME

Who creates redistricting maps for congressional districts

Ballot measure for independent commission

Independent

commission

Other

commission

Single

district

State legislators

AL

GA

KY

ME

MS

NH

OH

PA

TN

VA

AZ

CT

NJ

AK

SD

CA

AR

IL

LA

MI

NC

NM

OK

RI

TX

WI

HI

NY

DE

WY

CO

IN

MA

MN

NE

NV

OR

SC

UT

WV

IA

WA

MT

VT

FL

KS

MD

MO

ID

ND

Who creates redistricting maps for state legislative districts

Independent

commission

Other

commission

State legislators

AL

IL

LA

MI

NC

NH

OK

SC

TX

AZ

AK

HI

MO

OH

WI

DE

IN

MA

MN

ND

NM

OR

SD

UT

WV

CA

AR

IA

MT

PA

FL

KS

MD

MS

NE

NV

RI

TN

VA

WY

CO

ID

NJ

WA

NY

VT

GA

KY

CT

ME

Independent commissions are neither selected by nor populated with public officials. “They are much fairer, especially in states where one party has sole control.” says Michael Li, of the Brennan Center for Justice.

The momentum of independent commissions – first used in Arizona and California this decade – comes as a decade of contentious redistricting wraps up. In Colorado, a state congressman was banned from Senate floors and chamber for the 2011 session for losing his temper during a redistricting discussion. In Michigan, where redistricting maps were first approved in 2011, there is still ongoing litigation over partisan gerrymanders. The trial does not begin until next February. The next of district lines will be drawn in 2021, using new Census figures and in time for the 2022 midterms.

Maryland, Michigan and Nevada will be voting on measures that make voter registration more convenient.

Ballot measure

States with

automatic voter registration

AK

CO

DC

IL

RI

VT

CA

CT

GA

OR

MD

NJ

WV

MA

WA

MI

NV

States with

Election day voter registration

CA

CT

HI

IL

ME

MN

CO

DC

ID

IA

MT

NH

UT

VT

WI

WY

WA

MD

MI

Ballot measure

Ballot measure

States with automatic voter registration

CA

CO

DC

IL

RI

VT

AK

CT

GA

OR

MD

NJ

WA

WV

MI

NV

MA

States with Election day voter registration

CO

CT

HI

IL

ME

MN

CA

DC

ID

IA

NH

UT

VT

WI

WY

WA

MD

MI

MT

States with

Ballot measure

Automatic

voter

registration

AK

CA

CO

DC

IL

RI

VT

CT

GA

OR

MD

NJ

WV

MA

WA

MI

NV

Election day

voter

registration

CA

CO

CT

HI

IL

ME

MN

DC

ID

IA

MT

NH

UT

WI

WA

MD

MI

VT

WY

Ballot measure

States with

AK

CA

CO

CT

DC

GA

IL

OR

RI

VT

Automatic

voter registration

MD

NJ

WV

MA

WA

MI

NV

CA

CO

CT

DC

HI

ID

IL

IA

ME

MN

Election day

voter registration

MT

NH

UT

VT

WI

WY

WA

MD

MI

Ballot measure

States with

AK

CA

CO

DC

IL

RI

VT

CT

GA

OR

Automatic

voter registration

MD

NJ

WV

MA

WA

MI

NV

CA

CO

CT

HI

IL

ME

MN

DC

ID

IA

Election day

voter registration

MT

NH

UT

VT

WI

WY

WA

MD

MI

Michigan and Nevada have automatic voter registration on the ballot. When residents receive a driver’s license – or in Michigan, any state identification – they are automatically registered to vote, unless they decline. “Automatic voter registration means cleaner [voter] rolls, fewer mistakes, more people on rolls and a cheaper process” said Myrna Pérez of the Brennan Center for Justice. In Oregon, the first state to implement it, registration nearly quadrupled. In the next election — the fall of 2016 — the state experienced the nation’s largest voter turnout increase.

Michigan’s ballot measure on voting includes other proposals, such as Election Day registration and an extension of voter registration deadlines. Maryland voters also have an Election Day registration measure. Same-day voter registration gives a small boost to voter turnout, according to Trey Hood, a political science professor at the University of Georgia, though it can also result in longer wait times at the polls.

A Florida ballot measure proposes expanding voting rights to an estimated 1.5 million felons – nearly 10 percent of the state’s voting age population. Florida is one of only four states that permanently blocks felons from voting. Polls from both the University of Northern Florida and North Star Opinion and EMC research firms show support over 70 percent. The vote requires 60 percent to pass.

But not all initiatives are trying to make it easier to vote. In North Carolina and Arkansas, voters will decide on a constitutional amendment requiring photo IDs to vote.

Voting id

requirement

Non-photo id

Photo id

Ballot measure to add voter id

requirement to state constitution

NH

WA

VT

ME

MT

ND

MN

OR

MA

ID

WI

NY

SD

RI

MI

WY

CT

IA

PA

NE

NJ

NV

OH

IL

IN

UT

DE

CO

WV

CA

MD

VA

KS

MO

KY

NC

TN

OK

AZ

AR

SC

NM

GA

AL

MS

LA

TX

AK

FL

HI

Voting id

requirement

Non-photo id

Photo id

Ballot measure to add voter id

requirement to state constitution

NH

WA

VT

ME

MT

ND

MN

OR

MA

ID

WI

NY

SD

RI

MI

WY

CT

IA

PA

NE

NJ

NV

OH

IL

IN

UT

DE

CO

WV

CA

MD

VA

KS

MO

KY

NC

TN

OK

AZ

AR

SC

NM

GA

AL

MS

LA

TX

AK

FL

HI

Voting id requirement

Non-photo id

Photo id

Ballot measure to add voter id

requirement to state constitution

N.H.

Wash.

Vt.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Mass.

Idaho

Idaho

Wis.

N.Y.

S.D.

R.I.

Mich.

Wyo.

Conn.

Iowa

Pa.

Neb.

N.J.

Nev.

Ohio

Ill.

Ill.

Ind.

Utah

Del.

Colo.

W.Va.

Calif.

Md.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

N.C.

Tenn.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ariz.

S.C.

S.C.

Ark.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Texas

Texas

La.

Alaska

Fla.

Hawaii

Voting id requirement

Non-photo id

Photo id

Ballot measure to add voter id

requirement to state constitution

N.H.

Wash.

Vt.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Mass.

Idaho

Idaho

Wis.

N.Y.

S.D.

R.I.

Mich.

Wyo.

Conn.

Iowa

Pa.

Neb.

N.J.

Nev.

Ohio

Ill.

Ill.

Ind.

Utah

Del.

Colo.

W.Va.

Calif.

Md.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

N.C.

Tenn.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ark.

Ariz.

Ariz.

S.C.

S.C.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

Alaska

Texas

Texas

La.

Fla.

Hawaii

Ballot measure to add voter id

requirement to state constitution

Voting id requirement

Non-photo id

Photo id

N.H.

Wash.

Vt.

Maine

Mont.

N.D.

Minn.

Ore.

Mass.

Idaho

Idaho

Wis.

N.Y.

S.D.

R.I.

Mich.

Wyo.

Conn.

Iowa

Pa.

Neb.

N.J.

Nev.

Ohio

Ill.

Ill.

Ind.

Utah

Del.

Colo.

W.Va.

Calif.

Md.

Va.

Kan.

Mo.

Ky.

N.C.

Tenn.

Tenn.

Okla.

Ariz.

Ariz.

Ark.

S.C.

S.C.

N.M.

Ga.

Ala.

Miss.

La.

Alaska

Texas

Texas

Fla.

Hawaii

The ballot measures come after previous voter ID laws in both states were struck down by courts. In 2014 the Arkansas Supreme Court declared the state’s voter ID law unconstitutional. Last year, the legislature passed another voter ID law, which was ultimately upheld by the state’s supreme court. North Carolina’s previous voter ID law was struck down by the U.S. Court of Appeals in 2016 for holding racially discriminatory intent. Enshrining voter ID requirements in the state constitution provides safety from some court challenges.

Both measures leave the details of the photo ID law to the legislature, giving them power to decide which ids fit the requirement and how restrictive the laws should be.

Support for voting access falls broadly along partisan lines, a recent Pew study found. Nearly 80 percent of Democrats support automatic voter registration and same day registration compared to 49 percent of Republicans. The opposite trend is true of voter ID laws, where over 90 percent of Republicans are in favor compared to 63 percent of Democrats.

About this story

Data on Medicaid abortion funding is from the Guttmacher Institute. Marijuana legalization laws are courtesy of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Redistricting data is from the Brennan Center for Justice. Same day and automatic voter registration data are from the NCSL and the Brennan Center. Voter ID requirements data is from the NCSL and Ballotpedia.

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