Obama

A virtual museum of his presidency

Through a collection of deeply reported stories, videos, photographs, documents and graphics, experience Barack Obama’s historic time in office: as the first black president, as commander in chief, as a domestic and foreign policymaker, and as a husband and father.

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Obama’s Legacy Commander in Chief

Photos: The Islamic State remakes the terrorism equation

How did the Islamic State, or Isis, come to power, and what did the U.S. do to combat it?

Free Syria Army (FSA) fighters battle with regime loyalist soldiers to dislodge a sniper from its position overlooking the two main roads in the neighbourhood of Askar, in Syria's northern city of Aleppo, on October 24, 2012. AFP PHOTO / JAVIER MANZANO        (Photo credit should read Javier Manzano/AFP/Getty Images)
Free Syria Army fighters battle with regime loyalist soldiers in Aleppo, Syria, in 2012. (Javier Manzano/Agence France-Presse via Getty Images)

The 2011 uprising against President Bashar al-Assad spawned a violent, multisided conflict in Syria. As a result, opposition fighters claimed vast tracts of the country, allowing an array of armed groups space to gain strength.

Two Syrian rebels take sniper positions at the heavily contested neighborhood of Karmal Jabl in central Aleppo on October 18, 2012. Violence persisted on October 19 with rebels and loyalists of President Bashar al-Assad locked in battle for the northwestern town of Maaret al-Numan on the Damascus-Aleppo highway linking Syria's two biggest cities. AFP PHOTO/JAVIER MANZANO        (Photo credit should read Javier Manzano/AFP/Getty Images)
Two Syrian rebels take sniper positions in central Aleppo in 2012. ( Javier Manzano/Agence France-Presse via Getty Images)

As Syria’s civil war grew more complex, the remnants of a group once known as al-Qaeda in Iraq moved into Syria and became a powerful force among opposition groups. The Islamic State became known for its success in recruiting foreign fighters and for its zealous imposition of sharia law in the areas it captures.

A fighter of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) holds an ISIL flag and a weapon on a street in the city of Mosul, June 23, 2014. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry held crisis talks with leaders of Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region on Tuesday urging them to stand with Baghdad in the face of a Sunni insurgent onslaught that threatens to dismember the country. Picture taken June 23, 2014. REUTERS/Stringer (IRAQ - Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY) - RTR3VIB1
An Islamic State fighter holds a flag and a weapon in Mosul, Iraq, in 2014. (Reuters)

In early 2014, Islamic State fighters took control of the city of Fallujah in western Iraq, revealing the fragility of Iraq’s security only two years after the departure of U.S. troops. Six months later, Islamic State militants streamed into northern Iraq and captured Mosul, Iraq’s second-largest city, taking the government in Baghdad and its western backers by surprise. The Islamic State’s advance was made possible by the collapse of Iraqi army units stationed around Mosul, raising questions about earlier U.S. efforts to build an effective military force in Iraq.

FISHKHABOUR, IRAQ: Yezidi cross a bridge from Syria back into Iraq.

Tens of thousands of Yezidi--an minority ethno-religious group in Iraq--have made there way to safety after being stranded on Mt. Sinjar. They escaped to the mountain after coming under attack by ISIL (The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant). After days of being stranded, they were able to safely descend the mountain into Syria and then cross back into Iraq further north.

(Photo by Sebastian Meyer for the Washington Post)
Yazidis cross a bridge from Syria back into Iraq in 2014. (Sebastian Meyer for The Washington Post)

The arrival of the Islamic State proved calamitous for minorities in northern Iraq. The Islamic State executed Yazidis around the town of Sinjar; others faced harrowing conditions when they fled to nearby mountains. The United States launched its first airstrikes against the Islamic State, around Sinjar and in protection of the Kurdish capital, Irbil, in August 2014.

People hold a photograph of James Foley, the freelance journalist killed by the IS group, during a memorial service in Irbil, 350 kilometers (220 miles) north of Baghdad, Iraq, Sunday, Aug. 24, 2014. Foley, the U.S. journalist slain by Islamic State militants after being held in captivity for nearly two years, was remembered in a small ceremony in Irbil on Sunday. (AP Photo/ Marko Drobnjakovic)
People hold a photograph of James Foley during a memorial service in Irbil, Iraq, in August 2014. (Marko Drobnjakovic/Associated Press)

The Islamic State began to execute foreign hostages it held in Syria, including American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff. The killings galvanized public sentiment against the Islamic State. The next month, the Obama administration and its partners broadened their campaign of airstrikes to Syria.

A U.S. Navy F/A-18 launches from the USS Carl Vinson in this undated handout picture released November 1, 2014.  U.S.-led air strikes hit Islamic State positions around Kobani earlier in the day in an apparent effort to pave the way for the heavily-armed Kurdish contingent to enter.   REUTERS/US Navy/Handout via Reuters  (UNITED STATES - Tags: MILITARY CONFLICT TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY) THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS - RTR4CF8G
A Navy aircraft launches from the USS Carl Vinson. (U.S. Navy via Reuters)

President Obama authorized the return of substantial numbers of U.S. military personnel to Iraq for the first time since the 2011 withdrawal. American advisers were tasked with helping to rebuild a capable military force that can dislodge the Islamic State.

SANLIURFA, TURKEY -  OCTOBER 20:  (TURKEY OUT)   An explosion rocks Syrian city of Kobane during a reported suicide car bomb attack by the militants of Islamic State (ISIS) group on a People's Protection Unit (YPG) position in the city center of Kobani, as seen from the outskirts of Suruc, on the Turkey-Syria border, October 20, 2014 in Sanliurfa province, Turkey. According to Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu, Turkey will reportedly allow Iraqi Kurdish fighters to cross the Syrian border to fight Islamic State (IS) militants in the Syrian city of Kobane while the United States has sent planes to drop weapons, ammunition and medical supplies to Syrian Kurdish fighters around Kobane. (Photo by Gokhan Sahin/Getty Images)
An explosion rocks Kobani, Syria, during an attack by Islamic State militants in 2014. (Gokhan Sahin/Getty Images)

U.S. strikes helped partner forces in Iraq and Syria make limited gains against the Islamic State. In Syria, Kurdish forces took back control of Kobani, a city on the Turkish border. In Iraq, government forces pushed into the militant-held city of Tikrit.

EVZONI, GREECE - MAY 05: "THE BLACK ROUTE".  Ahmed Jinaid (42) and his family on the Greek/Macedonian border on May 5th, 2015 in Evzoni, Greece. With the sun setting rapidly Ahmed Jinaid and his small family group continue on their epic journey through northern Greece. The Macedonian border is only a kilometer ahead and they must cross this hill without being spotted by any of the armed gangs and paramilitaries operating in the area. Once at the top of the hill they will wait until total darkness before carrying on in total silence through Macedonia. (Photos by Charles Ommanney / The Washington Post)
A family in Evzoni, Greece, heads toward the Macedonian border in May 2015. (Charles Ommanney for The Washington Post)

Harsh conditions in areas under Islamic State control swelled the flows of migrants heading for Europe, exposing divisions among the 28-member European Union and heightening fears about militant attacks there.

This image made from video taken on Thursday, Oct. 22, 2015 from a helmet camera, shows U.S. and Iraqi special forces freeing hostages from a prison controlled by Islamic State militants in the town of Huwija, 15 kilometers (9 miles) west of the Iraqi city of Kirkuk. The Kurdish regional government in northern Iraq released a video Sunday, Oct. 25, 2015 purportedly showing the joint raid of a prison by U.S. and Kurdish peshmerga forces in which they released 70 hostages from the Islamic State group’s captivity. (Kurdistan Regional Security Council via AP)
Footage from a helmet camera shows U.S. and Iraqi special forces freeing hostages from an Islamic State-controlled prison in Iraq in October 2015. (Associated Press)

The Obama administration gradually expanded its military role on the ground in a bid to accelerate progress against the Islamic State. While the White House insisted that U.S. troops would not take part in combat operations, troops helped local forces conduct dangerous operations. The first combat death occurred in October 2015, when American Special Operations forces accompanied Kurdish pershmerga troops on a hostage raid.

ATTENTION EDITORS - VISUAL COVERAGE OF SCENES OF INJURY French fire brigade members aid an injured individual near the Bataclan concert hall following fatal shootings in Paris, France, November 13, 2015. Gunmen and bombers attacked busy restaurants, bars and a concert hall at locations around Paris on Friday, killing dozens of people in what a shaken President Francois Hollande described as an unprecedented terrorist attack.    REUTERS/Christian Hartmann      TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY      - RTS6W11
Emergency workers help people injured in the attacks in Paris in November 2015. (Christian Hartmann/Reuters)

The reach of the Islamic State beyond Iraq and Syria became starkly clear when militants launched a series of coordinated attacks across Paris in November 2015, killing at least 130 people.

A man wrapped in a Belgian flag holds a candle as people gather at a makeshift memorial in front of Brussel's Stock Exchange on Place de la Bourse (Beursplein) on March 24, 2016, two days after a triple bomb attack, claimed by the Islamic State group, hit Brussels' airport and the Maelbeek - Maalbeek metro station, killing 31 people and wounding 300 others. / AFP PHOTO / PHILIPPE HUGUENPHILIPPE HUGUEN/AFP/Getty Images
A man wrapped in a Belgian flag joins others at a makeshift memorial in front of Brussels’s Stock Exchange after the attacks in March. (Philippe Huguen/Agence France-Presse via Getty Images)

New attacks on the Brussels airport and metro system in March 2016 further illustrated the vulnerability of European nations to home-grown militant plots.

FILE - This July 27, 2014 file photo provided by U.S. Customs and Border Protection shows Tashfeen Malik, left, and her husband, Syed Farook, as they passed through O'Hare International Airport in Chicago. The attack in San Bernardino, California, that left 14 people dead represented a type of extremist plot law enforcement authorities consider exceedingly difficult to detect: a conspiracy between close family members. (U.S. Customs and Border Protection via AP, File)
Tashfeen Malik, left, and her husband, Syed Farook — the couple who carried out the attack in San Bernardino, Calif. — pass through Chicago O’Hare International Airport in July 2014. (U.S. Customs and Border Protection via Associated Press)

Although the United States has been shielded from the bulk of Europeans’ fears about migrant-related security threats, its own vulnerability was exposed in December 2015, when two California residents, voicing loyalty to the Islamic State, launched an attack on a gathering of municipal workers, killing 14 people and wounding at least 22 more. The attack, the deadliest terrorist attack on U.S. soil since Sept. 11, 2001, triggered an ongoing controversy about the limits of government access to personal data and the role of Muslim immigrants in the United States.

This story is part of a virtual museum of President Barack Obama’s presidency. In five parts — The First Black President, Commander in Chief, Obama’s America, Obama and the World and The First Family — we explore the triumphs and travails of his historic tenure.

Room One
The First Black President
Illustrations by James Steinberg
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A hopeful moment on race
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Obama’s effort to heal racial divisions and uplift black America
Barack Obama's presidency signaled a "post-racial" America at first, but the racial conflict followed disproved that.

Barack Obama’s watershed 2008 election and the presidency that followed profoundly altered the aesthetics of American democracy, transforming the Founding Fathers’ narrow vision of politics and citizenship into something more expansive and more elegant. The American presidency suddenly looked very different, and for a moment America felt different, too.

The Obama victory helped fulfill one of the great ambitions of the civil rights struggle by showcasing the ability of extraordinarily talented black Americans to lead and excel in all facets of American life. First lady Michelle Obama, and daughters Sasha and Malia, extended this reimagining of black American life by providing a conspicuous vision of a healthy, loving and thriving African American family that defies still-prevalent racist stereotypes.

But some interpreted Obama’s triumph as much more.

SLUG: NA/OBAMA DATE: 10/31/08 CREDIT: Linda Davidson / staff/ The Washington Post LOCATION: Wicker Memorial Park, Gary, IN SUMMARY: Democratic Presidential candidate Barack Obama holds a rally in Gary, IN. PICTURED: Members of the crowd respond to Obama as he makes his way down the ropeline. Some seek to shake his hand, others want to touch his head, some just want a hug. StaffPhoto imported to Merlin on Fri Oct 31 23:06:03 2008
Members of the crowd in Gary, Ind., seek to shake the candidate's hand or touch his head as he thanks them for their support in October 2008. (Linda Davidson/The Washington Post)

The victory was heralded as the arrival of a “post-racial” America, one in which the nation’s original sin of racial slavery and post-Reconstruction Jim Crow discrimination had finally been absolved by the election of a black man as commander in chief. For a while, the nation basked in a racially harmonious afterglow.

A black president would influence generations of young children to embrace a new vision of American citizenship. The “Obama Coalition” of African American, white, Latino, Asian American and Native American voters had helped usher in an era in which institutional racism and pervasive inequality would fade as Americans embraced the nation’s multicultural promise.

Seven years later, such profound optimism seems misplaced. Almost immediately, the Obama presidency unleashed racial furies that have only multiplied over time. From the tea party’s racially tinged attacks on the president’s policy agenda to the “birther” movement’s more overtly racist fantasies asserting that Obama was not even an American citizen, the national racial climate grew more, and not less, fraught.

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS: NOVEMBER 6 -- President Barack Obama is re-elected to office in Chicago, Illinois, on Tuesday, November 6, 2012. (Photo by Nikki Kahn/The Washington Post)
President Obama is feted in Chicago on Nov. 6, 2012, the night he is elected to his second term as commander in chief. (Nikki Kahn/The Washington Post)

If racial conflict, in the form of birthers, tea partyers and gnawing resentments, implicitly shadowed Obama’s first term, it erupted into open warfare during much of his second. The Supreme Court’s 2013 decision in the Shelby v. Holder case gutted Voting Rights Act enforcement, throwing into question the signal achievement of the civil rights movement’s heroic period.

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Beginning with the 2012 shooting death of black teenager Trayvon Martin in Florida, the nation reopened an intense debate on the continued horror of institutional racism evidenced by a string of high-profile deaths of black men, women, boys and girls at the hands of law enforcement.

The organized demonstrations, protests and outrage of a new generation of civil rights activists turned the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter into the clarion call for a new social justice movement. Black Lives Matter activists have forcefully argued that the U.S. criminal justice system represents a gateway to racial oppression, one marked by a drug war that disproportionately targets, punishes and warehouses young men and women of color. In her bestselling book “The New Jim Crow,” legal scholar Michelle Alexander argued that mass incarceration represents a racial caste system that echoes the pervasive, structural inequality of a system of racial apartheid that persists.

DENVER, COLORADO: OCTOBER 24 -- A fan hugs President Barack Obama as he works the rope line following a rally at City Park in Denver, Colorado, on Wednesday, October 24, 2012. (Photo by Nikki Kahn/The Washington Post)
A supporter hugs President Obama as he works the rope line following a rally in Denver in October 2012. (Nikki Kahn/The Washington Post)

Obama’s first-term caution on race matters was punctured by his controversial remarks that police “acted stupidly” in the mistaken identity arrest of Henry Louis Gates Jr., Harvard University’s prominent African American studies professor, in 2009. Four years later he entered the breach once more by proclaiming that if he had a son, “he’d look like Trayvon.”

In the aftermath of racial unrest in Ferguson, Mo., and Baltimore, and a racially motivated massacre in Charleston, S.C., Obama went further. In 2015, Obama found his voice in a series of stirring speeches in Selma, Ala., and Charleston, where he acknowledged America’s long and continuous history of racial injustice.

Policy-wise Obama has launched a private philanthropic effort, My Brother’s Keeper, designed to assist low-income black boys, and became the first president to visit a federal prison in a call for prison reform that foreshadowed the administration’s efforts to release federal inmates facing long sentences on relatively minor drug charges.

Despite these efforts, many of Obama’s African American supporters have expressed profound disappointment over the president’s refusal to forcefully pursue racial and economic justice policies for his most loyal political constituency.

From this perspective, the Obama presidency has played out as a cruel joke on members of the African American community who, despite providing indispensable votes, critical support and unstinting loyalty, find themselves largely shut out from the nation’s post-Great Recession economic recovery. Blacks have, critics suggested, traded away substantive policy demands for the largely symbolic psychological and emotional victory of having a black president and first family in the White House for eight years.

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Others find that assessment harsh, noting that Obama’s most impressive policy achievements have received scant promotion from the White House or acknowledgment in the mainstream media.

History will decide the full measure of the importance, success, failures and shortcomings of the Obama presidency. With regard to race, Obama’s historical significance is ensured; only his impact and legacy are up for debate. In retrospect, the burden of transforming America’s tortured racial history in two four-year presidential terms proved impossible, even as its promise helped to catapult Obama to the nation’s highest office.

DES MOINES, IOWA: NOVEMBER 5 -- President Barack Obama wraps up his campaign with a final stop in downtown Des Moines, Iowa, on Monday, November 5, 2012. (Photo by Nikki Kahn/The Washington Post)
President Obama wraps up his campaign with a final stop in downtown Des Moines on Nov. 5, 2012. (Nikki Kahn/The Washington Post)

Obama’s presidency elides important aspects of the civil rights struggle, especially the teachings of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. King, for a time, served as the racial justice consciousness for two presidents — John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Many who hoped Obama might be able to serve both roles — as president and racial justice advocate — have been disappointed. Yet there is a revelatory clarity in that disappointment, proving that Obama is not King or Frederick Douglass, but Abraham Lincoln, Kennedy and Johnson. Even a black president, perhaps especially a black president, could not untangle racism’s Gordian knot on the body politic. Yet in acknowledging the limitations of Obama’s presidency on healing racial divisions and the shortcomings of his policies in uplifting black America, we may reach a newfound political maturity that recognizes that no one person — no matter how powerful — can single-handedly rectify structures of inequality constructed over centuries.

Peniel Joseph is professor of history and director of the Center for the Study of Race and Democracy and the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas.

Next story from Obama’s Legacy
The speech on race that saved Obama’s candidacy
Barack Obama’s 2008 campaign was almost derailed after racially charged sermons by his former minister, Jeremiah Wright of Chicago's Trinity United Church of Christ were released. After initiall downplaying the controversy, Obama faced it head on during his "A more perfect union" speech given in Philadelphia at the National Consitution Center.
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A soliloquy in Philadelphia
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The beer summit
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Being number one means nothing until there’s a number two.

L. Douglas Wilder
First black governor since Reconstruction
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The other trailblazers
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On a bridge in Selma
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If I had a son, he would look like Trayvon.

Barack Obama
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In his own words
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The backlash
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A new aesthetic
See photos

Some young Americans have known only one president in their lifetime.

So we asked their thoughts on President Obama as he leaves office.
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Kids on Obama
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Crime, justice and race
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Obama in Africa
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A record 69
of African Americans turned out to vote in 2008, surpassing white turnout rates for the first time.
Source: U.S. Elections Project analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data
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The Obama electorate
See graphics
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Your Obama presidency
Share your story
Room Two
Commander in Chief
Illustrations by Brian Stauffer
Perspectives on the president of a nation at war:

Has he failed to understand the nature of war or shown the virtues of patience to win the long game?

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On war and leadership
Read essays
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The parade of generals
Watch video

We won some good fights and we lost the war.

Thomas Gibbons-Neff
Former Marine infantryman
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A tour of duty
See photos
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One enemy after another
See graphics

No matter how justified, war promises human tragedy.

Barack Obama
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Words of war and peace
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The last convoy
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The rise of ISIS
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Weighing intervention
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An army of drones
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Struggle after service
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After the killing of Osama bin Laden,
69
of Americans approved of Obama’s efforts to stem terrorism.
Source: Washington Post-ABC News polls, 2011
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Fear at home
See graphics
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Your fight, your stories
Share your story
Room Three
Obama’s America
Illustrations by Thandiwe Tshabalala
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Eight turbulent years
Watch video

Anyone claiming that America’s economy is in decline is peddling fiction.

President Obama
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Economic brinksmanship
Read essay
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The price of Obamacare
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A new state of unions
See photo essay
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Shots fired
Watch video
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A cultural shift
Watch video
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‘Healing the planet’
Read essay

What is it like to be the last black president?

Zach Galifianakis
Host of “Between Two Ferns”
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Making presidential comedy
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A mark in the wilderness
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While the nation’s economy recovered steadily, over
6 in 10
Americans said the country was on the wrong track.
Source: Washington Post-ABC News polls
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American reactions
See graphic
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Your America
Share your story
Room Four
Obama and the World
Illustrations by Jasu Hu
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Determined restraint
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For Muslims, unanswered prayers
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Open hand, clenched fist
Read Q&A
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Talking to Tehran
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Closer now – and cigars!
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In 2015 and 2016, an average
60
of people throughout the world had a favorable opinion of the United States.
Pew Research Center
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Standing in the world
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Friends, adversaries
See photos
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A pivot to Asia
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52 trips.
58 countries.
217 days
outside
the country.
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Air Force One miles
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Your worldview
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Room Five
The First Family
Illustrations by Erin K. Robinson
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The new modern family
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The Obama family has really uplifted the image of the black family from the moment we saw them.

Stacie Lee Banks, 53
Longtime Washingtonian
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White House, black women
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The first lady’s last stand
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He does not walk. He strolls with a black man’s head-up posture.

Robin Givhan
Fashion critic, The Washington Post
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It’s an Obama thing
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In the cultural mix
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White House parents
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In fall 2009,
66
of Americans said they liked the way the Obama family leads their life in the White House.
Pew Research Center/National Public Radio poll
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The most popular of them all?
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The O’Bidens
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The first dogs
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Obama’s Legacy
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Credits
Credits
Editing
  • Terence Samuel, project editor
  • Allison Michaels, project manager, digital editor
  • Shannon Croom, multiplatform editor
  • Courtney Rukan, multiplatform editor
  • Emily Chow, graphics assignment editor
Design and development
  • Seth Blanchard
  • Emily Yount
Illustrations
  • Suzette Moyer, art director
  • James Steinberg, illustrator (The First Black President)
  • Brian Stauffer, illustrator (Commander in Chief)
  • Thandiwe Tshabalala, illustrator (Obama’s America)
  • Jasu Hu, illustrator (Obama and the World)
  • Erin K. Robinson, illustrator (The First Family)
Video
  • Dalton Bennett
  • Gillian Brockell
  • Bastein Inzaurralde
  • Claritza Jimenez
  • Ashleigh Joplin
  • Whitney Leaming
  • Osman Malik
  • Zoeann Murphy
  • Erin O’Conner
  • Sarah Parnass
  • Mahnaz Rezaie
  • Jorge Ribas
  • Whitney Shefte
  • Peter Stevenson
Photo editing
  • Stephen Cook
  • Robert Miller
  • Kenneth Dickerman
  • Wendy Galietta
  • Bronwen Latimer
  • Dee Swann
Writing and reporting
  • Derek Chollet
  • Elliot Cohen
  • Christian Davenport
  • Ivo H. Daalder
  • Mike DeBonis
  • Karen DeYoung
  • Juliet Eilperin
  • Michael Fletcher
  • Thomas Gibbons-Neff
  • Robin Givhan
  • Will Haygood
  • Sari Horwitz
  • Greg Jaffe
  • Peniel Joseph
  • Paul Kane
  • Wesley Lowery
  • David Maraniss
  • Greg Miller
  • Steven Mufson
  • David Nakamura
  • John Pomfret
  • Missy Ryan
  • Peter Slevin
  • Kevin Sullivan
  • Krissah Thompson
  • Neely Tucker
  • William Wan
  • Vanessa Williams
Research and graphics
  • Darla Cameron
  • Scott Clement
  • Emily Guskin
  • Tim Meko
  • Stephanie Stamm
  • Aaron Steckelberg
  • Elise Viebeck