Arrests on Jan. 26

KILLED IN SHOOTOUT ON HIGHWAY 395

Jim Urquhart

LaVoy Finicum, 54

Finicum, who refused to surrender to officers before he was killed, was a spokesman for the occupiers. He had previously said they would not give up until all 187,000 acres of the refuge were turned over to Harney County and private ownership.

ARRESTED AFTER SHOOTOUT ON HWY 395

Ammon Bundy, 40

Ryan Bundy, 43

The leader and organizer of the occupiers, Ammon Bundy is the son of Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy, who has had several tussles with the government.

The Oregonian reported that Ryan Bundy was injured in the shootout. He was among the original armed group that broke from a protest in Burns, Ore., on Jan. 2 and took over the refuge headquarters.

Brian Cavalier, 44

Shawna Cox, 59

The Bunkerville, Ore., man and the other seven who were arrested face felony charges of conspiracy to impede officers of the United States from performing official duties through force, intimidation or threats.

Cox is from Kanab, Utah. She and other occupiers had left the refuge to attend a community meeting in John Day, Ore.

Ryan Payne, 32

Payne is from Anaconda, Mont. The occupation stirred activists from around the West.

Photos via Multnomah County sheriff’s office

ARRESTED IN BURNS

Photos via Multnomah County sheriff’s office

Joseph

O’Shaughnessy, 45

Peter Santilli, 50

The Cincinnati man had live-streamed events from the refuge.

O’Shaughnessy is from Cottonwood, Ariz.

ARRESTED IN PHOENIX

Jon Ritzheimer, 32

Ritzheimer, a Marine from Arizona, turned himself in. He is known for anti-Muslim rhetoric and for organizing a protest at a Phoenix mosque.

Maricopa County

sheriff’s office

KILLED IN SHOOTOUT ON HIGHWAY 395

LaVoy Finicum, 54

Finicum, who refused to surrender to officers before he was killed, was a spokesman for the occupiers. He had previously said they would not give up until all 187,000 acres of the refuge were turned over to Harney County and private ownership.

Jim Urquhart/Reuters

ARRESTED AFTER SHOOTOUT ON HIGHWAY 395

Ammon Bundy, 40

Ryan Bundy, 43

The leader and organizer of the occupiers, Ammon Bundy is the son of Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy, who has had several tussles with the government.

The Oregonian reported that Ryan Bundy was injured in the shootout. He was among the original armed group that broke from a protest in Burns, Ore., on Jan. 2 and took over the refuge headquarters.

Shawna Cox, 59

Ryan Payne, 32

Cox is from Kanab, Utah. She and other occupiers had left the refuge to attend a community meeting in John Day, Ore.

Payne is from Anaconda, Mont. The occupation stirred activists from around the West.

Brian Cavalier, 44

The Bunkerville, Ore., man and the other seven who were arrested face felony charges of conspiracy to impede officers of the United States from performing official duties through force, intimidation or threats.

Photos via Multnomah County sheriff’s office

ARRESTED IN BURNS

ARRESTED IN PHOENIX

Photos via Multnomah County sheriff’s office

Maricopa County sheriff’s office

Joseph O’Shaughnessy, 45

Peter Santilli, 50

Jon Ritzheimer, 32

Ritzheimer, a Marine from Arizona, turned himself in. He is known for anti-Muslim rhetoric and for organizing a protest at a Phoenix mosque.

The Cincinnati man had live-streamed events from the refuge.

O’Shaughnessy is from Cottonwood, Ariz.

Shootout on Highway 395

KILLED

ARRESTED

Jim Urquhart

Jim Urquhart/Reuters

Photos via Multnomah County sheriff’s office

LaVoy Finicum, 54

Ammon Bundy, 40

Ryan Bundy, 43

Brian Cavalier, 44

Shawna Cox, 59

Ryan Payne, 32

Finicum, who refused to surrender to officers before he was killed, was a spokesman for the occupiers. He had previously said they would not give up until all 187,000 acres of the refuge were turned over to Harney County and private ownership.

The leader and organizer of the occupiers, Ammon Bundy is the son of Nevada rancher Cliven Bundy, who has had several tussles with the government.

The Oregonian reported that Ryan Bundy was injured in the shootout. He was among the original armed group that broke from a protest in Burns, Ore., on Jan. 2 and took over the refuge headquarters.

Cox is from Kanab, Utah. She and other occupiers had left the refuge to attend a community meeting in John Day, Ore.

Payne is from Anaconda, Mont. The occupation stirred activists from around the West.

The Bunkerville, Ore., man and the other seven who were arrested face felony charges of conspiracy to impede officers of the United States from performing official duties through force, intimidation or threats.

ARRESTED IN BURNS

ARRESTED IN PHOENIX

Jon Ritzheimer, 32

Ritzheimer, a Marine from Arizona, turned himself in. He is known for anti-Muslim rhetoric and for organizing a protest at a Phoenix mosque.

Photos via Multnomah County sheriff’s office

Maricopa County sheriff’s office

Joseph

O’Shaughnessy, 45

Peter Santilli, 50

O’Shaughnessy is from Cottonwood, Ariz.

The Cincinnati man had live-streamed events from the refuge.

The location

The refuge is in the remote and sparsely populated eastern half of the state.

5

WASHINGTON

Spokane

Seattle

Olympia

90

0

100

5

MILES

Portland

84

84

Salem

John Day

Eugene

OREGON

DETAIL

5

NEVADA

CALIFORNIA

Arrests

The occupiers were arrested on Highway 395 about halfway to John Day, Ore., which is about 100 miles away. They had been heading to a community meeting.

395

20

Burns

20

205

Malheur National

Wildlife Refuge

Malheur

Lake

Harney

Lake

Occupied

refuge

headquarters

The Hammonds

Bureau of Land Management rangeland allotted to the Hammond family.

0

10

MILES

5

WASHINGTON

Spokane

Seattle

Olympia

90

0

100

5

MILES

Portland

84

84

Salem

John Day

Eugene

The location

OREGON

The refuge is in the remote and sparsely populated eastern half of the state.

DETAIL

5

NEVADA

CALIFORNIA

Arrests

The occupiers were arrested on Highway 395 about halfway to John Day, Ore., which is about 100 miles away. They had been heading to a community meeting.

395

20

Burns

20

205

Malheur National

Wildlife Refuge

Malheur

Lake

78

Harney

Lake

Occupied

refuge

headquarters

The Hammonds are residents of Diamond.

The Hammonds

Bureau of Land Management rangeland allotted to the Hammond family.

Diamond

0

10

MILES

The location

Arrests

395

The refuge is in the remote and sparsely populated eastern half of the state.

The occupiers were arrested on Highway 395 about halfway to John Day, Ore., which is about 100 miles away. They had been heading to a community meeting.

20

Burns

5

WASHINGTON

Spokane

Seattle

Olympia

90

20

0

100

5

MILES

Portland

84

205

84

Salem

John Day

Eugene

OREGON

Malheur National

Wildlife Refuge

Malheur

Lake

DETAIL

5

78

Harney

Lake

NEVADA

Occupied

refuge

headquarters

CALIFORNIA

The Hammonds are residents of Diamond.

Diamond

The Hammonds

Bureau of Land Management rangeland allotted to the Hammond family.

0

10

MILES

A close-up look at the refuge headquarters

After a peaceful march and rally on Jan. 2, a group of armed activists, led by Ammon Bundy, traveled to the headquarters of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge and announced plans to stay indefinitely.

Refuge Headquarters

Observation

tower

0

500

FEET

The remote wildlife refuge’s headquarters includes a visitors center, office and storage buildings. (Rebecca Boone/Associated Press)

Militia leaders say they are prepared to remain indefinitely on the grounds, which they can survey from a watch tower. (Jim Urquhart/Reuters)

Refuge Headquarters

Observation

tower

0

500

FEET

The remote wildlife refuge’s headquarters includes a visitors center, office and storage buildings. (Rebecca Boone/Associated Press)

Militia leaders say they are prepared to remain indefinitely on the grounds, which they can survey from a watch tower. (Jim Urquhart/Reuters)

This wildlife refuge was established on Aug. 18, 1908, by President Theodore Roosevelt “as a preserve and breeding ground for native birds." It was one of 51 wildlife refuges created by Roosevelt.

Who are the Bundys and the Hammonds

The Bundy family makes up perhaps the best known of the current crop of activists who think that the federal government — through expanding environmental and land regulation — has unconstitutionally infringed on the rights of citizens.

THE BUNDYS

Jim Urquhart/Reuters

Cliven

Bundy

Led an armed standoff with federal agents in Nevada in 2014.

Father

Brothers

Rick Bowmer/AP

Rebecca Boone/AP

Ammon

Bundy

Ryan

Bundy

The two brothers took part in an armed occupation of a Federal building on a wildlife refuge.

The Hammond family’s lawyer has stated that the family denies involvement with the Bundy armed standoff.

THE HAMMONDS

Amelia Templeton/

Oregon Public Broadcasting

Oregon Farm Bureau

Dwight

Hammond

Steven

Hammond

Father

Son

Sentenced to five years in prison for committing arson on federal land. Reported to prison on Jan. 4.

THE BUNDYS

Jim Urquhart/Reuters

Rick Bowmer/AP

Rebecca Boone/AP

Cliven

Bundy

Ammon

Bundy

Ryan

Bundy

Father

Brothers

Led an armed standoff with federal agents in Nevada in 2014.

The two brothers took part in an armed occupation of a Federal building on a wildlife refuge.

THE HAMMONDS

The Hammond family’s lawyer has stated that the family denies involvement with the Bundy armed standoff.

Oregon Farm Bureau

Amelia Templeton/

Oregon Public Broadcasting

Dwight

Hammond

Steven

Hammond

Father

Son

Sentenced to five years in prison for committing arson on federal land. Reported to prison on Jan. 4.

THE BUNDYS

THE HAMMONDS

The Hammond family’s lawyer has stated that the family denies involvement with the Bundy armed standoff.

Jim Urquhart/Reuters

Rick Bowmer/AP

Rebecca Boone/AP

Amelia Templeton/

Oregon Public Broadcasting

Oregon Farm Bureau

Cliven

Bundy

Ammon

Bundy

Ryan

Bundy

Dwight

Hammond

Steven

Hammond

Father

Brothers

Father

Son

Led an armed standoff with federal agents in Nevada in 2014.

The two brothers took part in an armed occupation of a Federal building on a wildlife refuge.

Sentenced to five years in prison for committing arson on federal land. Reported to prison on Jan. 4.

Best known among the Bundys is Cliven, the family patriarch and Nevada rancher who led an armed standoff against federal agents in 2014.

Dwight and Steven Hammond, of nearby Diamond, Ore., were prosecuted by the federal government for starting a fire that destroyed more that 100 acres of public land. Court documents state that they started a fire on BLM land to cover up illegal hunting. They served time in prison, but an appeals court demanded that they serve a five-year minimum sentence.

What is the legal issue?

The trigger for the latest development was the five-year prison sentences given to the Hammonds.

But the much larger dispute is whether the federal government can legally own land long-term, said Robert L. Glicksman, a George Washington University law professor and co-author of a leading treatise on federal land management. This is a major issue in Oregon, where the government still owns more than half the land it acquired from Great Britain in 1846.

Federal land in Oregon

Forest Service

National Park Service

Bureau of Land Management

Fish and Wildlife Service

Portland

OREGON

Eugene

Harney County

(Detail)

Occupied

Building

Burns

Malheur National

Wildlife Refuge

Diamond

0

20

MILES

Federal land

in Oregon

Forest Service

National Park Service

Fish and Wildlife Service

Bureau of Land Management

Occupied

Building

Burns

Portland

Malheur National

Wildlife Refuge

OREGON

Harney

County

Eugene

Diamond

(Detail)

0

20

MILES

The controversy centers around one clause in the U.S. Constitution: “The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States.”

Some farmers, ranchers and landowners in the West interpret “dispose of” to mean that the federal government can own property only for a short time before selling or granting it to states, localities or private entities.

They don’t accept the federal government’s ownership of the land, so they don’t accept its right to regulate the land.

“The courts have rejected that position many times,” Glicksman said, citing decades of previous litigation and U.S. law that gives the government the right to own and manage land for the benefit of the public.

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