We’re asking 2020 Democrats where they stand on key issues

A record number of candidates are running for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination. To provide voters with a clear sense of what these candidates are for and against, The Post is publishing a series of pages laying out their policy stances.

We are sending detailed questionnaires to every Democratic campaign asking for their stances on various issues, and supplementing their answers with past positions and public statements. In some cases, the answers candidates give us represent their first on-the-record stance on key policies. We’re then organizing their responses into easily-digestible groups to show how the field is divided.

So far, we have surveyed candidates and published pages on eight issue areas:

Below we’ve included just one question of many for each issue area. Click through to see the full set of questions.

Criminal justice

Do you support the federal legalization of recreational marijuana?

Yes, legalize it federally

Yes, legalize it federally

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

“The failed war on drugs is an attack on our values of freedom and fairness as Americans,” Gabbard's campaign website said. “In recent years, many states have taken initiative by legalizing marijuana, reforming drug laws and sentencing guidelines, and winding down the “War on Drugs.” Now it’s time for the federal government to do its part.” Gabbard co-sponsored the Marijuana Justice Act.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

“Yes. [Sanders] will take executive action to legalize marijuana by removing it from the Controlled Substances Act, expunge past convictions of marijuana-related offenses and ensure that victims of the War on Drugs are not passed over by the burgeoning marijuana industry,” a Sanders campaign spokesperson told The Post. “The criminalization of marijuana was a disaster, especially for African Americans and communities of color. We will ensure that revenue from marijuana is reinvested in communities hit hardest by the War on Drugs.” Sanders co-sponsored the Marijuana Justice Act.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. “Yes. I support removing marijuana from the list of controlled substances, automatically expunging the convictions of those who have served federal time for marijuana use and possession offenses, and reinvesting in low-income and minority communities who have been disproportionately affected by decades of failed drug policy,” Bennet told The Post. “I also support policies to ensure companies in states where marijuana is currently legal can access the banking system. As a former school superintendent in a state that has legalized marijuana, I am also focused on policies to ensure young people do not have access to it as their brains develop.” Bennet co-sponsored the Marijuana Justice Act.

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. “End the federal prohibition on marijuana and automatically expunge the records of those convicted on charges of marijuana use and possession,” Booker's Next Step criminal justice plan said. He introduced the Marijuana Justice Act.

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. Buttigieg supports the federal legalization of recreational marijuana, a campaign spokesperson told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. Klobuchar supports federal legalization or recreational marijuana, a campaign spokesperson confirmed to The Post. Klobuchar previously told The Post that she supports “legalization of marijuana and believes that states should have the right to determine the best approach to marijuana within their borders.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. Patrick supports the federal legalization of recreational marijuana, a campaign spokesperson told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. Steyer supports the federal legalization of recreational marijuana, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. “Yes. I support the full legalization of marijuana and restorative justice for those unjustly jailed for minor marijuana crimes,” Warren told The Post. “We should delist marijuana as a Schedule I drug. I’ve also introduced legislation to keep the federal government from interfering in states that have legalized marijuana -- medical or recreational. And I support bringing marijuana businesses into the banking system and the tax system.” Warren co-sponsored the Marijuana Justice Act.

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. Williamson supports the federal legalization of recreational marijuana, she told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. “Yes. Marijuana is now legal for adult use in 11 states and the District of Columbia, and 33 states have legalized medical marijuana in some form. Yet, thousands of Americans are locked away due to marijuana-related offenses,” a Yang campaign spokesperson told The Post. “To resolve ambiguity and end the incarceration of majiuana users, we must legalize marijuana at the federal level, especially since we can’t seem to enforce our current laws in a non-racist manner.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Decriminalize and let states decide on legalization

Decriminalize and let states decide on legalization

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“Biden believes no one should be in jail because of cannabis use,” a campaign spokesperson told The Post. “As president, he will decriminalize cannabis use and automatically expunge prior cannabis convictions. And, he will support the legalization of cannabis for medical purposes, leave decisions regarding legalization for recreational use up to the states and reschedule cannabis as a schedule II drug so researchers can study its positive and negative impacts.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. Bloomberg supports decriminalizing marijuana and allowing states to decide on legalization, he told The Post. “In 2017, 72,000 Americans OD'd on drugs. In 2018, more people than that are ODing on drugs, have OD'd on drugs, and today incidentally, we are trying to legalize another addictive narcotic, which is perhaps the stupidest thing we've ever done,” Bloomberg said at a January 2019 event. “We've got to fight that, and that's another thing that Bloomberg philanthropies will work on in public health.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bloomberg
Bloomberg

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. “I support removing marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act, and I will direct federal prosecutors to review past cases and petition courts to expunge criminal records related to minor, non-violent marijuana offenses like simple possession,” Delaney told The Post. “I would put in place a federal regulatory structure for recreational marijuana and let states make their own decisions about legalization.” His campaign confirmed that he supports decriminalizing marijuana and allowing states to decide on legalization.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney
See 6 other criminal justice questions

Other questions include private prisons, voting in prison, mandatory minimums and more

Gun control

Do you support a federal assault weapons ban?

Yes, with a mandatory buyback

Yes, with a mandatory buyback

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. “Ban assault weapons, high-capacity magazines, and bump stocks,” Booker's gun-safety plan said. He co-sponsored the Assault Weapons Ban of 2019. “To me, this is very similar to the machine gun ban that we saw many years ago,” Booker told Vox. “First of all, just having an outright ban on them, [we] began to see the reduction of their existence in the hands of private citizens. I just think that we need to go as far as we possibly can in removing these weapons of war from our communities and from our streets. I know this is something that ultimately we [need to] get the Democratic Party on board with, but I would like to see a buyback program and a mandatory turnover.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. “Yes, assault weapons should be banned, and we should initiate a mandatory buyback program,” Williamson told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Yes, with a voluntary buyback

Yes, with a voluntary buyback

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“As president, Biden will ban the manufacture and sale of assault weapons and high-capacity magazines. Federal law prevents hunters from hunting migratory game birds with more than three shells in their shotgun. Under current law, we protect migratory game birds more than children. The ban on assault weapons will be designed to prevent manufacturers from circumventing the law by making minor changes that don’t limit the weapon’s lethality. While working to pass this legislation,” a campaign spokesperson told The Post. “Biden will also use his executive authority to ban the importation of assault weapons. Biden will also institute a program to buy back weapons of war currently on our streets. This will give individuals who now possess assault weapons or high-capacity magazines two options: Sell the weapons to the government, or register them under the National Firearms Act.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

Sanders co-sponsored the Assault Weapons Ban of 2019.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. Bennet supports a federal assault weapons ban and a voluntary buyback program, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. Bloomberg “supports a ban on sales of assault weapons on a going-forward basis,” a campaign spokesperson told The Post. “For people who own assault weapons prior to the enactment of an assault weapons ban, [Bloomberg] supports a law that would allow those people to keep those firearms, if they register them with the government. However, future transfers of those firearms would not be allowed, other than to a licensed dealer or to law enforcement. [Bloomberg] would support a government-funded program that enables people to sell those firearms for value to the government, if they decide that they no longer want to own them. This policy is sometimes called a "voluntary buyback program.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. Buttigieg supports a federal assault weapons ban and a voluntary buyback program, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. Castro's gun-safety plan pledged to “renew a permanent assault weapons ban. Weapons of war do not belong in the communities of America. These firearms were designed with the singular purpose of inflicting mass human casualties. Require registration of assault weapons already owned by individuals under the National Firearms Act. Establish a buyback program through an Assault Weapons Reduction Trust Fund to purchase firearms including assault weapons and banned high capacity magazines to ensure 2021 is the high-water mark of weapons of war on American streets.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. “I support a federal assault weapons ban and would be open to a voluntary buyback program,” Delaney told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. Klobuchar supports a federal assault weapons ban and a voluntary buyback program, she told The Post. She co-sponsored the Assault Weapons Ban of 2019.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. Patrick supports a federal assault weapons ban and a voluntary buyback program, a campaign spokesperson told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. “Yes. I support a voluntary gun buyback program,” Steyer told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. “Congress should again ban the future production, sale, and importation of military-style assault weapons, and require individuals already in possession of assault weapons to register them under the National Firearms Act,” Warren told The Post. “We should establish a buyback program to allow those who wish to do so to return their weapon for safe disposal, and individuals who fail to register or return their assault weapon should face penalties.” Warren co-sponsored the Assault Weapons Ban of 2019.

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. “These military-style firearms have played a major role in making mass shootings even more deadly,” a Yang spokesperson told The Post. “They should be banned, with a voluntary buy-back program, and the definition should be sufficiently flexible to handle design-arounds by the gun manufacturers.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Yes, stance on buyback unclear

Yes, stance on buyback unclear

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard co-sponsored the Assault Weapons Ban of 2019.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard
See 5 other gun policy questions

Other questions include gun licensing and registration, “red-flag” laws, background checks and more

Economic inequality

Do you support a tax on the assets held by the wealthiest Americans?

Yes

Yes

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

“To reduce the outrageous level of inequality that exists in America today and to rebuild the disappearing middle class, [Sanders] will tax the extreme wealth of the top 0.1 percent of U.S. households with a net worth of over $32 million which would raise an estimated $4.35 trillion over the next decade. The revenue would be used to fund [Sanders's] affordable housing plan, universal childcare and would help fund Medicare for All,” the Sanders campaign told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. “I strongly believe that the wealthy have an obligation to pay their fair, higher share. Raising taxes on the highest earning Americans is necessary to pay for the ambitious policy reforms that America needs, and this can be done without a return to the tax rates that were common a half century ago. I have discussed the need to substantially raise marginal tax rates on the highest earners. I have spoken about the need for a wealth tax and/or analogously high taxes on income from wealth — such as capital gains, dividends, and estate bequests — that raise large amounts of revenue by taxing capital gains and dividends of the wealthy, similar to how we tax their earned income.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. “Yes. Even before I was a candidate for president, I proposed a wealth tax,” Steyer told The Post. “My proposal would tax .01% on the top 1% of Americans, or about 175,000 families, who make more than $32 million. Under this proposal, they’ll pay a penny on every dollar above that level. No deductions, no exemptions, no loopholes. Over the next decade, those pennies could raise more than one trillion dollars for our schools, health care, retirement security, and more.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. “Yes. I introduced this back in January. My wealth tax is a 2-cent tax on every dollar of net worth above $50 million and 6 cents on each dollar of net worth above $1 billion,” Warren told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. “Wealth in America is so concentrated, the “one-percenters” own 42 percent of the wealth, which is more than 90 percent of the people combined. This needs to change,” Williamson told The Post. “Currently an heir doesn’t pay any taxes until the inheritance reaches $22 million: I support restoring the estate tax on assets above $5.45 million per person, or about $11 million per couple. I would also enact a wealth tax of 2 percent on wealth over $50 million and 3 percent on wealth over $1 billion to help pay the bills.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

No, but adjust taxes on capital gains

No, but adjust taxes on capital gains

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“America was not built by Wall Street or CEOs — it was built by the middle class. Millionaires and billionaires should not be paying lower taxes than teachers or firefighters. That’s why I support proven policies that would raise billions by taxing the wealthiest Americans,” Biden told The Post. “These include closing the stepped-up basis loophole, raising the capital gains tax rate on millionaires, and reverting to the 2009 real estate tax rates and exemption levels. Combined, these policies would raise hundreds of billions in revenue so we can invest in health care, schools, climate, infrastructure and more.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. “Yes. First, taxes on wealth income shouldn’t be lower than taxes on work income, so I’d charge the same rates on capital gains as on wages. Second, I’d close the trust fund loophole and other ways the rich escape taxation. Third, I’d expand estate taxes on large inheritances. Lastly, I’d increase the top tax rate for high-income taxpayers. Combined, this would make our tax code more fair and raise $2 trillion+ to support working families,” Bennet told The Post. His campaign confirmed that he supports adjusting taxes on income from wealth.

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. “We need a fairer tax system,” Bloomberg told The Post. “In recent years, the incomes of low-paid working families have grown slowly, if at all, while the incomes of the rich have surged. The tax system has compounded this disturbing rise in inequality by granting the wealthiest households many opportunities to avoid paying tax. So as well as raising needed revenue, my administration will shift the overall burden of taxes toward those most able to bear it, by taxing capital gains and income from employment equitably.” His tax plan proposed “raising rates on high-income taxpayers, taxing capital income more equitably, closing loopholes, and bolstering enforcement.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. “Making sure that the wealthy pay their fair share is an essential component to restoring economic justice to our tax code,” Booker told The Post. “We can start by implementing my plan to tax long-term capital gains and qualified dividends at the same rate as ordinary income through a “mark-to-market” framework, increasing individual tax rates, and raising rates and exemption levels for the estate tax.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Steve Bullock (Dropped out)

Governor, Montana

Bullock is no longer running for president. “We can and must do more to build a more progressive tax system that ensures all Americans pay their fair share. We can do that without pursuing a policy that many have pointed out is largely unenforceable,” Bullock told The Post. “As president, I’ll build a fair tax code by closing loopholes, raising corporate and capital gains tax rates, and restructuring tax brackets.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. “Today, I’m proposing an ‘Inherited Wealth’ tax that ensures folks who receive income in the form of inheritance pay a fair share of taxes, like the rest of us. Income from capital gains and income from labor should be treated the same way: as income. That’s why I’m advocating that we raise the capital gains rate to match the marginal income tax rate for the wealthy,” Castro's working families plan said. “In my plan, I’m also supporting a ‘Wealth Inequality’ tax through mark-to-market system for the richest one-tenth of 1 percent that would tax their capital gains annually. Wealth inequality is a fundamental challenge to our economy, and we must address it. Under my plan, 99 percent of Americans would see their taxes go down or stay the same.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. “While I believe the wealthiest Americans should pay more in taxes, I don’t believe a wealth tax is the best approach as it’s likely unconstitutional and would be impossible to implement,” Delaney told The Post. “The best way to make sure the wealthiest Americans pay their fair share is to increase capital gains tax rates and repeal the GOP tax cuts for high income earners, including reversing cuts made to the estate tax.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. Patrick does not support a wealth tax, but does support increasing capital gains taxes, a campaign spokesperson told The Post. "I think a wealth tax is — makes a lot of sense directionally. My idea would be a much, much simpler tax system for everyone where we eliminate all or most of the deductions and we smooth out and simplify the system we have," Patrick told CBS News.

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Joe Sestak (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Pennsylvania

Sestak is no longer running for president. Sestak does not support a tax on the assets held by the wealthiest Americans, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Sestak
Sestak

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. Yang “doesn’t support a wealth tax. Many countries implemented a wealth tax and then repealed it because of serious implementation problems and shortfalls in the expected revenue generated,” his campaign told The Post. “Instead of repeating other countries’ mistakes, we should join the rest of the world’s advanced economies and implement a value-added tax. This type of tax has proven to be easier to implement and harder to avoid than a wealth tax.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

No

No

Unclear/No response

Unclear/No response

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard did not provide an answer to this question by publication.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Kamala D. Harris (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, California

Harris is no longer running for president. Harris did not provide an answer to this question by publication.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. “It could work. I am open to it. But I want to give a reality check here to Elizabeth [Warren], because no one on this stage wants to protect billionaires. Not even the billionaire wants to protect billionaires,” Klobuchar said at the October Democratic debate. “We just have different approaches. Your idea is not the only idea.” Her campaign did not clarify her position by publication.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar
See 17 other economic inequality questions

Other questions include paid family leave, $15 minimum wage, universal basic income and more

Foreign policy

Would you set a hard date for withdrawal from Afghanistan of all U.S. military forces?

By the end of my first year, did not rule out residual forces

By the end of my first year, did not rule out residual forces

Set the tightest deadline, but did not rule out some U.S. presence when asked

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

“The war in Afghanistan is the longest in American history, spanning the leadership of three Presidents from both political parties,” Gabbard told The Post. “I don’t want to see another one of my brothers and sisters in uniform killed in Afghanistan. If I am elected, no American will be fighting in Afghanistan by the end of my first year in office.” Gabbard did not respond to requests for clarification on whether she would leave residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. “I’ve seen first-hand the costs of our long conflict in Afghanistan. It’s time to end this endless war. The only question is do we do it well or poorly,” Buttigieg told The Post. “The best option: a negotiated peace agreement, involving the Afghan government, in which we bring our ground troops home, maintaining a residual Special Operations presence to help ensure that Afghanistan never again becomes a base for terrorist attacks against the United States or its allies.” In the second Democratic debate, he said, “we will withdraw, we have to,” and said he would withdraw U.S. troops within his first year in office.

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. U.S. military forces would withdraw from Afghanistan by the end of his first year, Steyer told The Post. He did not rule out residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

By the end of my first term, did not rule out residual forces

By the end of my first term, did not rule out residual forces

Others would like troops out of Afghanistan within four years, but did not rule out some U.S. presence when asked

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“I would bring American combat troops in Afghanistan home during my first term,” Biden told The Post. “Any residual U.S. military presence in Afghanistan would be focused only on counterterrorism operations. We need to be clear-eyed about our limited enduring security interests in the region: We cannot allow the remnants of Al Qa’ida in Afghanistan and Pakistan to reconstitute, and we must destroy the Islamic State presence in the region. Americans are rightly weary of our longest war; I am, too. But we must end the war responsibly, in a manner that ensures we both guard against threats to our Homeland and never have to go back.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

“I would withdraw U.S. military forces from Afghanistan as expeditiously as possible. It is past time to end our endless wars,” Sanders told The Post. He told the New York Times that "by the end of my first term, our troops would be home." A campaign spokesman confirmed that this did not rule out leaving residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. Bennet “believes that there is not a military solution in Afghanistan, and it is time to draw down forces,” a Bennet spokesperson told The Post. “Michael believes the United States needs to work toward a political solution in which we are clear about what we aim to achieve. We must determine our objective, something that hasn’t been clear in Afghanistan for a number of years, and withdraw forces based on that mission.” There would not be U.S. troops in Afghanistan at the end of Bennet's first term, he told the New York Times. Bennet did not respond to multiple requests for clarification on whether he would leave residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. There would not be U.S. troops in Afghanistan at the end of his first term, Bloomberg told The Post. He would not rule out residual forces past that time.

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Steve Bullock (Dropped out)

Governor, Montana

Bullock is no longer running for president. “There are young men and women entering military service this year who weren’t even born on 9/11. We’ve been entangled in the region for too long, and it’s time to reassess our posture,” Bullock told The Post. “I want our brave servicemembers to come home as soon as possible, and I’ll do everything in my power, including through diplomacy and working with our allies, to make that happen by the end of my first term.” A campaign spokesman confirmed that this did not rule out “the possibility of maintaining a small special forces contingent for the purpose of conducting counterterrorism operations, or being pre-positioned in the event they are needed.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. There would not be U.S. troops in Afghanistan at the end of Castro's first term, he told the New York Times. Castro did not respond to requests for clarification on whether he would leave residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Kamala D. Harris (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, California

Harris is no longer running for president. Harris “believes these values belong at the center of our foreign policy. As president, she’ll end the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and protracted military engagements in places like Syria. But she’ll do so responsibly – by consulting our Generals and Ambassadors, not via tweet,” her campaign website said. Harris told the Council on Foreign Relations, “as I have said many times, this war in Afghanistan must come to an end. I was honored to visit with our brave troops and national security professionals there last year, and I’ll do everything in my power to achieve a political solution – if one hasn’t been reached already – that allows us to bring them home responsibly in my first term.” Harris did not respond to requests for clarification on whether she would leave residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. There would not be U.S. troops in Afghanistan at the end of Klobuchar's first term, she told the New York Times. She later told CBS News, “You could always have training footprints and people working there ready to go if there is a complete upsurge, but I think that you have to make sure that this country can function on their own.” Klobuchar did not respond to requests for clarification on whether she would leave residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Beto O'Rourke (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke is no longer running for president. O'Rourke “has pledged that as President, he would bring a responsible end to the “forever wars” in Iraq and Afghanistan,” an O'Rourke spokesperson told The Post. “Eighteen years into the war in Afghanistan, and nearly three decades after our first engagement in Iraq, the time has come to cancel the blank check for endless war and to ensure that any future engagements are the result of a national conversation about our security interests and duly authorized by Congress after a robust national conversation about our security interests.” There would not be U.S. troops in Afghanistan at the end of O'Rourke's first term, he told the New York Times. O’Rourke did not respond to requests for clarification on whether he would leave residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Tim Ryan (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan is no longer running for president. “We must seek to bring American forces home from Afghanistan in the smartest way possible, with stated goals that are operationally feasible and diplomatically wise,” Ryan told The Post. “Even with the bulk of American forces gone, we must work with our allies and ensure the United States maintains the ability to counteract any rebirth of terror elements within the country, through targeted military strikes when warranted. We must also remain engaged diplomatically with the Afghan government and our allies to push future governments in Afghanistan toward openness, equality, and the rule of law. By the end of my first term, the bulk of US combat troops would be sent home.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Joe Sestak (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Pennsylvania

Sestak is no longer running for president. “Yes, within four years in a systematic strategy of milestones that can be measured and will a nation able to handle its infrastructure, governance and any residual insurgency,” Sestak told The Post. A campaign spokesman confirmed that this did not rule out leaving residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Sestak
Sestak

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. “We have been in Afghanistan for 18 years with increasingly diminishing returns for our own security — we’ve “turned the corner” so many times it seems we’re now going in circles. Expecting a military victory when a political settlement is required is unfair to our military, and unfair to the Afghan people. It's long past time to bring our troops home, and I would begin to do so immediately,” Warren told The Post. There would not be U.S. troops in Afghanistan at the end of her first term, Warren told the New York Times. Warren did not respond to requests for clarification on whether she would leave residual forces.

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. Yang hopes U.S. troops would be home by the end of his first term, but “it's impossible to know that for sure,” he told the New York Times.

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Draw down troops, but rely on conditions to dictate full withdrawal

Draw down troops, but rely on conditions to dictate full withdrawal

These candidates did not set a timeline for withdrawal

Bill de Blasio (Dropped out)

Mayor, New York City

de Blasio is no longer running for president. “We have to make sure there is a peace settlement in Afghanistan; it obviously has to involve the Taliban. Until that point I don't think it's sensible to take out our troops,” de Blasio told the New York Times. “If it's possible to forge a real peace plan that's durable,” there would not be U.S. troops in Afghanistan at the end of de Blasio's first term.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. “While I support dramatically reducing the number of U.S. troops in Afghanistan, I presently do not believe that a full withdrawal is in our best interests and therefore I envision keeping a small contingency of U.S. forces with a specific focus to train and support local security forces,” Delaney told the Council on Foreign Relations.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. “A prompt and orderly troop withdrawal would be my objective,” Patrick told the Council on Foreign Relations. “But without receiving expert guidance from our military, intelligence and foreign policy professionals, I cannot responsibly commit in advance to a specific timeframe.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. “No. The focus needs to be on diplomacy and making sure that women under the Taliban are safe,” Williamson told The Post. “We need a broader discussion than terrorism and troops to make sure we don’t do more harm by pulling out under an artificial deadline.” Williamson told The Daily 202, “this has been a feminist issue since before 2001. One positive thing that’s come from us being there has been the lessening of brutality towards women and the rights of women that came into full expression as a result of liberation.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson
See 14 other foreign policy questions

Other questions include the Iran nuclear deal, defense budget, TPP and more

Education

Should the government cancel existing student debt, and if so, for everyone or based on income?

Cancel all debt

Cancel all debt

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

“We will cancel the entire $1.6 trillion in outstanding student debt for the 45 million borrowers who are weighed down by the crushing burden of student debt. President Trump provided a tax cut of more than $1 trillion to the top one percent and large corporations,” a campaign spokesperson told The Post. “[Sanders] believes that money would be better spent on freeing millions of hardworking people from the burden of student debt, boosting the economy by $1 trillion over the next ten years, and creating up to 1.5 million new jobs every year. By canceling student debt, we will save the average student loan borrower about $3,000 a year in student loan payments — and hundreds of thousands of Americans will have the financial resources they need to buy new homes, cars and start new businesses. In addition, this proposal would cut the racial wealth gap for young Americans by more than half — from 12:1 to 5:1.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Cancel based on income

Cancel based on income

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. “We should provide targeted relief for those for whom the debt is crushing, hindering basic life functioning,” Bennet told The Post. “We should not cancel all debt for high-income students and students with graduate degrees that will allow them to increase their earnings over their lifetime. Yes, we should limit student debt payments as a share of income for all student debt holders, to ensure that nobody is paying more than 8 percent of their income toward student debt. That would be a 20 percent decrease in payments based on income relative to the current system. For students who make these payments for 20 years, their debt should be forgiven. We should also forgive up to $40,000 in debt over four years for people engaged in public service, including teachers who teach in high-need schools.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. Bloomberg supports canceling some debt based on income, he told The Post. “Together, the federal and state governments should make a new commitment to improving access to college and reducing the often prohibitive burdens debt places on so many students and families,” Bloomberg wrote in a 2018 New York Times op-ed.

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. “Student loan debt is holding millions of Americans back from buying their first home, starting families, and starting new businesses,” Booker told The Post. “We should start by looking at means-tested debt forgiveness for those who work in public service professions like teaching. As President, I would also work to reduce the burden of student debt by allowing eligible student loan borrowers to refinance their federal loans, and allowing eligible student loan borrowers to refinance their private loans into the federal program.” Booker supports "forgiving and/or refinancing debt for low-income individuals and individuals who go into certain public services professions, among others," a campaign spokesperson told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. “Until a borrower is earning at least 250% of the federal poverty line, their monthly loan payment will be capped at $0 with no interest accrual on unpaid interest for three years, exempting half of unpaid interest after three years,” Castro's education plan said. “This is not a deferred payment. The payment amount is $0. Once the borrower is earning above 250% of the federal poverty line, they will not pay more than 10% of their qualified income each month.” His plan also calls for “a new program of targeted loan forgiveness to forgive a proportion of loans for individuals who qualify for and receive means-tested federal assistance such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), or Medicaid for any three years within a five year period.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. “I also have a plan to cancel student debt for more than 95% of those who carry it,“ Warren told The Post. “The plan offers no debt cancellation to people with household income above $250,000 (the top 5%). This was to ensure we offer broad debt cancellation while simultaneously increasing wealth for Black and Latinx families and reducing both the Black-White and Latinx-White wealth gaps.” Warren’s plan would eliminate up to $50,000 in student debt for borrowers with an annual household income of less than $100,000.

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. “Yes. This generation of students cannot thrive if they are saddled with the chronic burden of college loan debt,” Williamson told The Post. “The majority of existing student debt should be cancelled, and others should be able to refinance to a lower level. We should also remove the restriction that prohibits people who declare bankruptcy to include student loans in the debt relief.” Her campaign site said, “We need to explore student loan forgiveness and options to remove red tape and lockouts, and reduce on-time payments from 10 years to 5 years. We need to reduce the interest rate for repayment of loans to a nominal, if not zero, percentage rate. We need to eliminate the origination fee on federal student loans, and eliminate the annual caps on federally subsidized loans.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Alleviate debt burdens in other ways

Alleviate debt burdens in other ways

Joe Biden

Former vice president

Biden supports canceling or adjusting payments based on income, his campaign told The Post. “Vice President Biden chaired the Middle Class Task Force and laid the groundwork for the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act to ensure college students can afford their student loans.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard co-sponsored legislation that would incentivize businesses to help employees pay off their student loans.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Steve Bullock (Dropped out)

Governor, Montana

Bullock is no longer running for president. “There’s a big difference in how the debt crisis impacts wealthy and lower-income Americans,” Bullock told The Post. “That’s why I don’t support blindly canceling debt regardless of job or income. Instead, student loans should be managed by the government at low interest rates that can be refinanced. We can forgive student loans for people who enter public service — like teaching. And we can make repayment plans tax-free and incentivize more workplaces to offer these benefits.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. “That would be great for us,” Buttigieg said in response to a question about Sanders's debt cancellation plan in the second Democratic debate. “And then the next day, there would be a student loan program and people would be out taking student loans wondering they weren't — why they weren't lucky enough in timing to get theirs wiped away completely, too.” Buttigieg told Vice that he supports improving existing programs, including the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program and the Teacher Loan Forgiveness program.

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. “The federal government shouldn’t be making a profit on student loans. Delaney will reduce interest rates on federal student loans and set them equal to the interest rate on 10-year Treasury bonds,” Delaney's campaign website said.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

Kirsten Gillibrand (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New York

Gillibrand is no longer running for president. “Senator Gillibrand believes in allowing students to refinance their student loan debt, and in eliminating student loan debt for public service,” a campaign spokesperson told The Post.

Feb. 18: “Student debt is at a crisis level in this country, and it holds our whole economy down. One of the first things I'd do as president is allow all students to refinance their loans at 4%. The federal government shouldn't be making money off the backs of our students, period.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Kamala D. Harris (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, California

Harris is no longer running for president. “Students shouldn’t fear decades of debt just because they want to pursue an education. But today in America, students graduate with so much debt, they often can’t take the job they want, start a business or a family, or even pay the bills,” Harris's campaign website said. “Kamala believes we need to act. As president, she’ll provide relief from crushing debt today, and ensure tomorrow’s students can attend college debt-free. That starts with immediately allowing current debt holders to refinance high-interest loans to lower rates, expanding Income Based Repayment (IBR) to ensure no student pays more than they can afford, and cracking down on for-profit colleges and lenders that defraud our students.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

John Hickenlooper (Dropped out)

Former governor, Colorado

Hickenlooper is no longer running for president. “Under my plan, we will cut the interest rate of all federal student loans to 2.5 %,” Hickenlooper told The Post. “For future students, we will increase funding to public universities and we will tie certain federal grants with requirements for states to provide their share of funding. We also will make all community colleges tuition-free for future students.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Jay Inslee (Dropped out)

Governor, Washington state

Inslee is no longer running for president. “Take steps to reduce the burden of student debt, including fixing the dysfunction of the Public Service Loan Program and enforcing the borrower-defense rules promulgated by the Obama Administration, allowing students defrauded by for-profit institutions to pursue legal action to eliminate their remaining debt burden,” Inslee's campaign website said. “Additionally, Governor Inslee will also propose a new program supporting STEM education and scientific and technical career paths through a student loan debt-forgiveness program for graduates entering clean energy, sustainability, and climate science-related jobs in the non-profit and public sectors.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. Klobuchar “supports allowing borrowers to refinance student loans at lower rates, loan forgiveness for in-demand occupations, expanded Pell grants, and tuition-free one- and two-year community college degrees and technical certifications,” her campaign website said.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Seth Moulton (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

Jun 27: “Our college plan would do 3 things: 1. Nobody in America will pay more than 10% of income on student loans. 2. If you still have loans after 20 years, they’ll be forgiven completely. 3. Cancel student loans for anyone who chooses to serve the country, civilian or military.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke is no longer running for president. O’Rourke “would allow borrowers with high interest rate private student loan debt to refinance at a lower federal interest rates,” a campaign spokesman told The Post. He “also would reform the existing public service debt forgiveness program by streamlining the options and accelerating debt forgiveness. He will propose that we forgive 10% of a borrower’s outstanding debt at the end of each year that they work in a public interest job tax-free.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. “For students overburdened by student debt today, we should at a minimum refinance their debt to eliminate or substantially reduce the interest,” Patrick's education plan said. “Our plan would allow borrowers to refinance retroactively and credit excess interest paid against the principal balance. For many students, this will effectively eliminate their existing debt. The federal government should also provide immediate relief to students who were taken advantage of by predatory, for-profit institutions, as well as students who have committed to public service. We will prioritize a comprehensive review of federal loan forgiveness programs to ensure that graduates receive clear and accurate information about eligibility and payback terms.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Tim Ryan (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan is no longer running for president. “The skyrocketing price of higher education is crippling the economic prosperity of our young people before they even have a chance to begin their careers,” Ryan told The Post. “We must figure out how to make college more affordable and how to help those drowning in student loans. That is why I support proposals that would make higher education tuition and debt-free. Because for too long, higher education has been promised only for the privileged few, and everyone’s sons and daughters should have the ability to get the skills they need to succeed — no matter if it is a four year, two year, or certificate school program. From parents who are losing their retirement savings to graduates with crippling debt, no family or individual should have to deal with that burden.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Joe Sestak (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Pennsylvania

Sestak is no longer running for president. “No, the government should not cancel existing student debt, but we must reduce student debt and the cost of higher education by: 1) Making federal aid and loan payments to universities and colleges contingent on their keeping tuition increases pegged to inflation, or lower; 2) Restructuring federal student loans so the government does not make a profit, as it currently does because the interest rate is based on the 10-year Treasury bond (due to this, government will make $127 billion in profit this decade); 3) Increasing Pell grants; and 4) Implementing a national credit transfer system (since the average transfer student loses 43% of their credits, costing billions of dollars nationally),” Sestak told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Sestak
Sestak

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. “Our first priority for current student debt holders would be to help alleviate their burden by allowing these individuals to refinance their student loans and making good on our promise to forgive debt for public service through an expansion of the public servant student loan forgiveness program,” Steyer told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. “Immediately reduce the student loan payments for millions of Americans by ensuring that the American government does not profit one cent from its educational loan servicing and that students get the same interest rates as the wealthiest bank,” Yang's campaign website said. He also pledged to “initiate a program that allows graduates to pay a percent of income instead of a fixed amount.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang
See 9 other education questions

Other questions include free college, universal pre-K, charter schools and more

Climate change

Do you support the Green New Deal resolution?

Yes

Yes, supports

Candidates who co-sponsored or endorsed the Green New Deal resolution.

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“Biden believes the Green New Deal is a crucial framework for meeting the climate challenges we face. It powerfully captures two basic truths, which are at the core of his plan: (1) the United States urgently needs to embrace greater ambition on an epic scale to meet the scope of this challenge, and (2) our environment and our economy are completely and totally connected,” his climate change plan said. Biden adopts the rhetoric — and at times, the actual policy proposals — of the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

“I support the carbon neutrality goals of the Green New Deal and the awareness it has brought across the country on the critical issues of energy independence and the climate crisis, however, I do not support ‘leaving the door open’ to nuclear power unless and until there is a permanent solution to the problem of nuclear waste," Gabbard told The Post. "I believe we need to invest in 100% renewable and safe energy sources like wind, solar, and geothermal." Gabbard did not co-sponsor the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

Sanders “not only cosponsored the Green New Deal resolution in the Senate, he will fight to pass a Green New Deal to generate millions of jobs and save American families money by transforming our energy system away from fossil fuels to 100 percent energy efficiency and sustainable energy,” a campaign spokesman told The Post. ”A Green New Deal will protect workers and the communities in which they live to ensure a transition to family-sustaining wage, union jobs and a green, sustainable economy.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. “Yes. I support the climate goals of the Green New Deal resolution. Unfortunately, the Republican Senate is blocking action on climate, but as president I will take immediate and ambitious steps to combat climate change, beginning on my first day in office,” Bloomberg told The Post. “I will accelerate the U.S. toward a 100% clean energy economy. We will slash greenhouse gas emissions economy-wide by 50% by 2030 and work to fully decarbonize the economy by mid-century at the latest ... As president, we will both dramatically reduce carbon and pursue environmental justice. By focusing on federal rulemaking, enforcement, and investments in communities disproportionately affected by the production and use of fossil fuels, I will prioritize the communities that have suffered from pollution the most.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. Booker “was an original cosponsor of the Green New Deal resolution in the Senate because he believes we need to act with an urgency and force that meets the scale of the challenge that we face,” his climate plan said. “As president, [Booker] will unite Americans to heal our atmosphere, our lands, and our communities with a bold vision for achieving a 100% clean energy economy quickly and equitably. Together, we will create millions of new high-paying jobs building the energy technologies, infrastructure, buildings, and vehicles of the future. We will invent new technologies and materials as innovative and resilient as we are. And we will be a moral leader on the world stage.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. Buttigieg supports the Green New Deal resolution, he told The Post. “Now in terms of broader question about jobs. This is extremely important in the industrial Midwest where I live and again people need to see where they have a role in this future and a role beside that of victim,” Buttigieg told a CNN climate town hall. “A lot of the jobs that are being created in the green economy are also good paying union jobs. And not all of them are exotic, a lot of them are good old fashioned building trades jobs that we're going to need more of to do the retrofits to get the energy efficiency that we need. We can create tremendous economic opportunity but let's be honest about the fact that this also means transition for a lot of people.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. Castro supports the Green New Deal, he told The Post. “We will mobilize America around this mission for a historic investment in the American people and our planet. That’s the benefit of a Green New Deal: we will build a 100 percent clean energy economy that both combats the climate crisis and tackles structural inequality,” his climate plan said.

Jan. 12: “We're gonna say no to subsidizing big oil and say yes to passing a Green New Deal.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Bill de Blasio (Dropped out)

Mayor, New York City

de Blasio is no longer running for president. “Yes, I support the Green New Deal resolution,” de Blasio told The Post. “In New York City we have already begun implementing a Green New Deal. Our Green New Deal policy centers on a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at city buildings, the equivalent of removing 1.3 million cars from the roads, while creating more than 25,000 high quality jobs. Along with other policies, the buildings mandate puts NYC on a path to reduce carbon emissions by 40% by 2030 and to carbon neutrality by 2050.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Kirsten Gillibrand (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New York

Gillibrand is no longer running for president. Gillibrand “was one of the first supporters of the Green New Deal, a moonshot strategy that would take major steps to save our planet by investing in infrastructure, creating a green jobs economy and protecting clean air and water,” Gillibrand's campaign website said. She co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Kamala D. Harris (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, California

Harris is no longer running for president. Harris co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution. “So, again, back to the United States Congress, here's my point. If they fail to act, as president of the United States, I am prepared to get rid of the filibuster to pass a Green New Deal,” Harris told a CNN climate town hall.

Apr. 24: “We must take climate change seriously and act with a sense of urgency. The clock is ticking and we can do something about it. I support the #GreenNewDeal because every day we wait is a day we fail future generations.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Jay Inslee (Dropped out)

Governor, Washington state

Inslee is no longer running for president. “I applaud Sen. Markey and Rep. Ocasio-Cortez for introducing the Green New Deal resolution," Inslee told The Post. "I have rolled out an ambitious Climate Mission, a 10-year mobilization that would move America to 100% clean energy and create 8 million jobs in a clean energy economy. I'm honored that Rep. Ocasio-Cortez and many of the grassroots leaders behind the Green New Deal have praised my plan as the most comprehensive plan towards a clean energy future.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. “My plan is definite that we have to go to carbon neutral by no later than 2050,” Klobuchar told a CNN climate town hall. “I'm a cosponsor of the Green New Deal, so I'd like to see it even sooner, right? But at the outset, when I look at the numbers, I think we should at least get this done — we have to by 2050. And we have to limit this to 2.7 degrees warming Fahrenheit or we're going to be in a whole lot more trouble than we are already are in today.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Seth Moulton (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

Moulton is no longer running for president. “I was one of the first to sign onto the resolution, but ... I have my own views on the details,” Moulton told The Post. “Rather than a jobs guarantee and forcing everyone onto Medicare-for-All ... we need policies like a skills guarantee, a carbon tax, and the Federal Green Corps, which is part of my vision for dramatically expanding national service.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke is no longer running for president. O’Rourke “supports the Green New Deal’s ambition in terms of the speed, size, and scale of sacrifice needed,” a campaign spokesman told The Post, calling for “investments in renewable energy and ... transition away from greenhouse gas-emitting energy sources to reach the goal of net-zero emissions by 2050.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. Patrick supports the goals of the Green New Deal resolution and plans to release a climate plan soon, a campaign spokesperson told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. “In addition to taking bold executive actions, I will challenge Congress to pass vital legislation to enact a Green New Deal and provide additional funding to protect the country against climate and weather-related natural disasters,” Steyer's climate plan framework said.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. Swalwell co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. “I am an original cosponsor of the Green New Deal resolution, which commits the United States to meet 100 percent of our power demand through clean, renewable, and zero-emission energy sources,” Warren told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. “A Green New Deal would provide an overall strategy for how clean energy, sustainable infrastructure and transportation, and a national green jobs program can revitalize our economy and utilize our innovative and human capacity to benefit all our people,” Williamson's campaign site said. “While it doesn’t cover the whole range of measures we must undertake to reverse global warming, it is an important step, therefore I support it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. “I love the vision of the Green New Deal,” Yang told a CNN climate town hall. “The framers of it have done us all a great service by energizing so many people around a vision. And, to me, the only issue I have with the Green New Deal is the timing of the timeline. I mean, they are right that we need to take urgent action, but the timeline that they have put out there would do away with commercial air travel and a lot of other things in a particular time frame, that, if we have a little bit more time, we can head in the same direction and achieve most of the same value.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Prefers something else

Prefers something else

Others preferred a different plan, or cheered the ambition but questioned how realistic it was.

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. “The Green New Deal has lifted the climate change debate and set strong goals, both of which are critically important. But it also includes policies such as paid vacation and affordable housing, which we should evaluate on their own merits, but not in a climate plan,” Bennet told The Post. “My plan catalyzes $10 trillion in private sector investment at home and abroad; it sets the first and most ambitious goal in history to conserve 30% of our lands and oceans, and it achieves net zero emissions as fast as possible and no later than by 2050 ...”

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Steve Bullock (Dropped out)

Governor, Montana

Bullock is no longer running for president. “I believe US climate policy must be ambitious, durable, and that a bipartisan foundation is essential to meeting long term climate goals,” Bullock told The Post. “As for the particulars of the resolution introduced in Congress, we can do better with a more focused plan ... we should significantly increase renewable energy, reverse the Trump Administration’s cuts to fuel efficiency standards and expand them to address the 37% of emissions that come from transportation, improve energy efficiency which could account for 30% of our overall goal, and follow the IPCC’s recommendation to invest in carbon capture.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. Delaney does not support the Green New Deal, he told The Post. He has introduced a climate plan centered on a carbon tax.

Feb. 14: “The Green New Deal as it has been proposed is about as realistic as Trump saying that Mexico is going to pay for the wall. Let's focus on what's possible, not what's impossible. #GND #GreenNewDeal”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

John Hickenlooper (Dropped out)

Former governor, Colorado

Hickenlooper is no longer running for president. “The resolution sets unachievable goals,” Hickenlooper wrote in a Post op-ed in March. “We do not yet have the technology needed to reach ‘net-zero greenhouse gas emissions’ in 10 years. That’s why many wind and solar companies don’t support it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Tim Ryan (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan is no longer running for president. “The Green New Deal Resolution does a great job of outlining the critical economic and environmental issues facing our nation, and how addressing the nexus of the two [is essential],” Ryan told The Post, but he said he does not support some aspects such as job guarantees and universal basic income.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Joe Sestak (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Pennsylvania

Sestak is no longer running for president. “I am supportive of the emissions targets included in the Green New Deal, but not every policy prescription in the resolution. I have a detailed plan to address climate change as part of my Plan for America, available on my website,” Sestak told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Sestak
Sestak
See 8 other climate change questions

Other questions include nuclear power plants, carbon tax, fracking and more

Immigration

Do you support extending the existing physical barriers on the U.S.-Mexico border?

No

No, does not support

These candidates said they would not support adding any more wall along the Southern border

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

“I do not support adding to existing physical barriers along the border and would immediately halt any use of taxpayer dollars for President Trump’s wasteful and ineffective border wall,” Sanders told The Post. He pledged in his Nov. 2019 immigration plan to stop "all construction of the racist and ineffective wall on the U.S.-Mexico Border and instead rely on cost-effective and innovative methods to counter the real threats of drug importation and human trafficking, not manufactured ones targeting the most vulnerable."

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. Bloomberg does not support extending the physical barriers, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. “I do not believe that building more physical security barriers is in our national best interest or makes us safer,” Booker told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. “We need to assess how new technologies and practices can provide alternatives to a barrier, which can at times be costly and environmentally intrusive,” Castro told The Post. “My ‘People First’ immigration plan would pursue an evidence-based approach to determining what investments we will make at the border to combat criminal actions like human and drug trafficking.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Bill de Blasio (Dropped out)

Mayor, New York City

de Blasio is no longer running for president. De Blasio does not support extending the physical barriers, his campaign told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Kamala D. Harris (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, California

Harris is no longer running for president. “Let me be very clear. I'm not going to vote for a wall under any circumstances. And I do support border security. And if we want to talk about that, let's do that,” Harris said at a CNN town hall event. “The idea that we're going to sell this thing to the American public and require the taxpayers of our country to pay $5 billion for something that will not deliver what [President Trump] is suggesting we need is ridiculous and I will not support it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

John Hickenlooper (Dropped out)

Former governor, Colorado

Hickenlooper is no longer running for president. Hickenlooper does not support extending the U.S.-Mexico border barrier, his campaign told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Jay Inslee (Dropped out)

Governor, Washington state

Inslee is no longer running for president. “As a member of Congress, I consistently voted against draconian border barriers, and against utilizing local police to enforce our immigration laws,” Inslee told The Post. “I will end Trump’s vain pursuit of a wall.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Seth Moulton (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

Moulton is no longer running for president. “We need secure borders but building a medieval border wall isn’t how we get there; instead, we need sensors, surveillance drones and next-generation security technology to strengthen the border where it’s needed most,” Moulton told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke is no longer running for president. O'Rourke told MSNBC that he would "absolutely" take down parts of the wall near El Paso, but said, “I think there are in some places a need for a physical barrier,” he said in February. “I would work with local stakeholders, the property owners, the communities, those who actually live there, to determine the best security solution.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Tim Ryan (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan is no longer running for president. Ryan does not support extending the U.S.-Mexico border barrier, his campaign told The Post. “I support smarter, more efficient and effective security at the border that makes better use of our country’s available technologies, border security personnel and other resources,” he said.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. Steyer does not support extending the physical barriers, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. “I do not support building a wall,” Warren told The Post.

Mar. 18: “The border wall isn’t about security, or making America safer. It’s a monument to hate and division, and I won’t support it. We are a better country than that. ”

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Only if experts recommend it

Only if experts recommend it

Others said they would consider the input of experts and local communities before ruling it out

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard only supports extending the physical barrier if experts recommend it, her campaign told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. Bennet only supports extending the physical barrier if experts recommend it, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Steve Bullock (Dropped out)

Governor, Montana

Bullock is no longer running for president. “If experts say that placing barriers in certain areas will serve that purpose, then I’d be in favor of giving them what they needed”, Bullock told The Post. “I also believe there are many modern technologies that can be deployed effectively. However, I strongly oppose building a wall for its own sake.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. “Secure borders and a well-managed immigration system are critical to national security,” Buttigieg told The Post. “We shouldn't fall into the trap of defining border security by a 'wall' or security barriers alone, but by a more complete set of tools and evolving technology to meet the threats not only of today, but what we may face tomorrow.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. “I support investing in smart border security as part of comprehensive immigration reform, which can include technology, personnel and physical barriers where experts deem necessary,” Delaney told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

Joe Sestak (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Pennsylvania

Sestak is no longer running for president. Sestak only supports extending the physical barrier if experts recommend it, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Sestak
Sestak

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. “Unless evidence and experts suggest we need new fencing, I will not support additional fencing. We should always be assessing this, but Trump’s promise to build a wall all the way along the border is too costly, ineffective and absurd,” Swalwell told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. “We need border security. The best way to provide security is not more or fewer walls, but efficient, effective border security driven by technology, particularly at points of entry,” Williamson told The Post. “I do not support open borders; I do support open hearts so people are treated humanely. Most unauthorized immigrants enter the United States legally, then simply overstay their visas. No increase in border security, including walls, will impact this most common route into our nation.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. “Walls generally aren’t an effective way of stopping illegal border crossings,” Yang told The Post. “I don’t think it’s worth it to tear down existing barriers, but I wouldn’t support adding more unless their utility could be demonstrated in a particular part of the border.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Unclear/No response

Unclear/No response

Candidates who do not appear to have addressed the question, or who have not returned responses.

Joe Biden

Former vice president

Biden said in 2018 that he was "inclined" to support a hypothetical deal with President Trump to add to current southern border barriers, if they added to national security and it was part of a deal to give a path to citizenship to immigrants who had arrived in the country as children. "I don't care about his political victory," Biden said of Trump. He did not provide an answer to this question.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Kirsten Gillibrand (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New York

Gillibrand is no longer running for president. “I’d have to ask folks in that part of the country to see whether the fencing that exists today is helpful or unhelpful,” Gillibrand told Fox News Channel when asked whether she would consider removing parts of the wall. She had not clarified her position on adding physical barriers.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. “I support smart security at our borders and oppose the Administration’s proposal to build a wall across our entire southern border,” Klobuchar's Senate website says. Klobuchar told ABC's George Stephanopolous that “we have tried to negotiate with [President Trump], but he won't take yes for an answer,” in response to a question about border wall funding.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. “We must also secure our borders and other ports of entry, but with more modern, more effective and less ham-fisted ways than with a physical wall,” his immigration plan said. Patrick did not answer this question by publication.

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick
See 10 other immigration questions

Other questions include abolishing ICE, a pathway to citizenship, E-Verify and more

Health care

Do you support Medicare-for-all?

Supports some version of it

Supports some version of it

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

Thanks to his 2016 presidential run and 2017 proposal, Sanders’s Medicare-for-all has become one of the major litmus tests in the 2020 primary. His Medicare-for-all plan pledged to “create a Medicare for All, single-payer, national health insurance program to provide everyone in America with comprehensive health care coverage, free at the point of service.”

Feb. 19: “... the time is long overdue for the United States to join every other major country on Earth and guarantee health care to all people as a right ...”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Bill de Blasio (Dropped out)

Mayor, New York City

de Blasio is no longer running for president. “Yes, I support moving America's health care system to a Medicare-for-all system,” de Blasio told The Post. “I believe healthcare is a human right and we must adopt a Medicare-for-all system to ensure that all Americans have access to high-quality health services no matter their means.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. Warren “supports Medicare for All, which would provide all Americans with a public health care program,” her health-care plan said. “Medicare for All is the best way to give every single person in this country a guarantee of high-quality health care. Everybody is covered. Nobody goes broke because of a medical bill. No more fighting with insurance companies. ” She later rolled out a transition plan that said “no later than my third year in office, I will fight to pass legislation that would complete the transition to full Medicare for All.” Warren co-sponsored Sen. Bernie Sanders’s Medicare-for-all bill in 2017.

Feb. 14: “... of course we can afford to invest in making sure every American has health care.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Supports it, with role for private insurance

Supports it, with role for private insurance

These candidates did not advocate eliminating private insurance, which Medicare-for-all does

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. Booker co-sponsored Sen. Bernie Sanders’s Medicare-for-all bill, but has said he wouldn’t do away with private health insurance. He has backed proposals to lower Medicare’s eligibility age to 50 and to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces.

March 11: “Medicare for All is the best way to ensure that every American has access to quality, affordable health care.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. “Strengthen Medicare for those who have it, and expand it to achieve universal healthcare coverage by including all Americans within the program,” Castro's health-care plan said. “Allow individuals to obtain supplementary private insurance or opt-out of Medicare if they have a high-standard private insurance plan through an employer or organization that is regulated under the Affordable Care Act”

Dec. 13: “I believe that we need Medicare-for-all.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Kirsten Gillibrand (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New York

Gillibrand is no longer running for president. A co-sponsor of Sanders’s 2017 bill, Gillibrand has also backed proposals to lower Medicare’s age of eligibility to 50 and to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces.

Jan. 13: “Passing Medicare for All ... so families would never again have to worry about affording a trip to the doctor or the prescriptions they need.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Kamala D. Harris (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, California

Harris is no longer running for president. Harris released a new health-care plan — her own version of Medicare-for-all that aims to move all Americans into a Medicare program after 10 years but would allow private, and more tightly regulated, plans to continue offering insurance — days before the second Democratic debate. She sparked a debate in January when she said she’d be willing to end private health insurance at a CNN town hall. She co-sponsored Sanders’s bill in 2017 and has also backed proposals to lower Medicare’s age of eligibility to 50 and to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces.

Feb. 15: “We need Medicare-for-all to bring dignity to millions.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Tim Ryan (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan is no longer running for president. “We need to think big when it comes to making healthcare more accessible and affordable, which is why I am a long time supporter of Medicare for All,” Ryan told The Post. “But as we move towards that ultimate goal, we need to be realistic on how we get there. That is why I also support making modifications to the Affordable Care Act and adding public option that would allow Americans to buy into Medicare without eliminating private health insurance options until we as a country can implement Medicare for All in a way that will move our country forward." Ryan co-sponsored the Medicare for All Act.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Prefers a public option

Prefers a public option

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“I understand the appeal of Medicare-for-all, but folks supporting it should be clear that it means getting rid of Obamacare, and I’m not for that,” Biden said in a video. His health plan backs “giving Americans a new choice, a public health insurance option like Medicare.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. "When you tell people the first thing about Medicare for All — either that it takes insurance away from 180 million Americans that have it through their employer or the taxes we would have to pay to afford that $30 trillion program — that 70 percent support falls to the mid-30s,” Bennet told CNN. “I think we need to level with the American people.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. “The first step is to create a Medicare-like public option — health insurance that would be administered by the federal government but paid for by customer premiums,” Bloomberg's health plan said. “In rolling out this option, priority would go to the uninsured, including low-income people who are in states that haven’t expanded Medicaid under the ACA. A public insurance option would improve consumer choice and increase competition in the private insurance market, pushing down everyone’s premiums. People of modest means who buy the public option would be eligible for the same subsidies that would apply on the health insurance exchanges.” In January 2019, Bloomberg said Medicare-for-all "would bankrupt us for a very long time."

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Steve Bullock (Dropped out)

Governor, Montana

Bullock is no longer running for president. Bullock told The Post that he prefers something other than Medicare-for-all.

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. In a March 2019 CNN town hall, Buttigieg said the "best way" to move toward a Medicare-for-all system is to "take some flavor of Medicare, you make it available on the exchange as a kind of public option, and you invite people to buy into it." At the time of initial publication, his campaign said that Buttigieg's stance was a version of Medicare-for-all, though in December 2019 a spokesperson said that Buttigieg prefers a public option, rather than a version of Medicare-for-all.

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. Delaney supports universal health care but says Sen. Bernie Sanders’s Medicare-for-all bill is not the way. He has proposed his own system that leaves Medicare in place for people over 65 and creates a new public plan for people under 65.

Feb. 18: “I think we should have universal health care in this country but I don't think we should get there by making private insurance illegal.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

John Hickenlooper (Dropped out)

Former governor, Colorado

Hickenlooper is no longer running for president. Of Medicare-for-all, Hickenlooper said, "I reject the notion that it should become a litmus test of what it takes to be a good Democrat."

Feb. 14: “We are not going to stop until we get universal coverage.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Jay Inslee (Dropped out)

Governor, Washington state

Inslee is no longer running for president. Inslee introduced a public option bill to offer a state-run health insurance plan.

Feb. 4: “Right now we need to embrace the things that we can have to move toward universal health coverage.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. Klobuchar prefers offering a Medicaid-type plan, embracing a bill to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces. She also signed onto a bill to lower the Medicare eligibilityage to 50.

Feb. 18: “It could be a possibility in the future. I'm just looking at something that will work now. ”

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Seth Moulton (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

Moulton is no longer running for president. Moulton prefers updating Medicare through a public option and competition with private insurers, he said in a Facebook post.

April 22: “... as a recipient of single-payer healthcare through the VA, which has a history of problems, I don’t believe we should force everyone to accept a one-size-fits-all government plan.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke is no longer running for president. O'Rourke supports Medicare for America, a campaign spokesman told The Post, adding that “it is the surest way to get to guaranteed, universal coverage while dramatically decreasing out-of-pocket-costs. Under his plan, everyone without care would be enrolled in Medicare and those with insufficient care could choose Medicare. Those with employer-sponsored insurance can opt for Medicare. He believes that people who have insurance that works for them should be able to keep it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. Patrick doesn't support Medicare-for-all "in the terms we've been talking about," he said in a Nov. 2019 CBS interview. He said he supports a public option. His campaign website called for “a public option that builds on the Affordable Care Act (ACA), one that is free to some and low cost to others, and that could even be modeled on Medicare.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Joe Sestak (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Pennsylvania

Sestak is no longer running for president. “I support the immediate creation of a public option, the success of which in terms of costs and quality will serve as incentive for the eventual transition of choice to a single-payer system,” Sestak told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Sestak
Sestak

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. “I support opening Medicare to all who want it,” Steyer told The Post. His campaign website said, “the American people deserve a health care system where everyone has access to quality, affordable, and secure health care. Tom supports a universal health care system, including a strong public option that aggressively competes with the private insurance marketplace, drives down costs, and expands coverage.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. “I support coverage for all, i.e., Medicare for all who want it,” Swalwell told The Post. “This would serve as a public option for any American, operating alongside and competing with private insurance plans, in order to drive prices down for everyone. If you’re sick you should be seen, and if you’re seen you shouldn’t go broke.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. Williamson's health plan “allows employers to offer health benefits to their employees; people still buy health insurance with required essential benefits on the insurance exchange, now with public options added; pre-existing conditions are covered; all while physicians, hospitals and other providers remain in the private sector.”

Feb. 21: “We’ve been trained to expect too little, reduced to haggling for things that should be considered everyone’s right.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Unclear

Unclear

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard co-sponsed the Medicare for All Act. “I support a single-payer system that will allow individuals to access private insurance if they choose,” her campaign website said. A single-payer system like Medicare-for-all would effectively eliminate private insurance.

Feb. 2: “We have to fight to make sure that every single American gets the quality health care that they need through Medicare-for-all.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. “To be clear, I support the spirit of Medicare for All, and have since the first day of this campaign,” Yang's health-care plan said. “I do believe that swiftly reformatting 18% of our economy and eliminating private insurance for millions of Americans is not a realistic strategy, so we need to provide a new way forward on healthcare for all Americans.” Yang previously said he wants to “move in the direction of a single-payer system” either through expanding Medicare to everyone or creating a new system.

Dec. 27: “We need to provide health care to all Americans, but I would not get rid of all private insurance plans immediately, because millions of Americans are on those plans, enjoy those plans, in many cases negotiated for those plans in lieu of higher wages. The goal of the government has to demonstrate that we can out-compete the private insurance plans and squeeze them out of the market over time.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang
See 7 other health-care questions

Other questions include private insurance, prescription drug prices and more

Changes to democracy

Do you support eliminating the electoral college in favor of the popular vote?

Yes

Yes

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

"I believe that it is hard to defend the current system in which one candidate receives 3 million votes less than his opponent, but still becomes president," Sanders told The Post. "Further, presidential elections cannot be fought out in just a dozen "battleground" states. I believe that we need to reexamine the concept of the electoral college." He later tweeted support for abolishing the electoral college.

Jul. 19: “Abolish the Electoral College.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Michael Bennet (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet is no longer running for president. Bennet has run Facebook ads calling for an end to the electoral college. "The electoral college is outdated," the posts said. "Americans should directly elect our presidents."

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Cory Booker (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker is no longer running for president. “I believe very simply that, in presidential elections, the person with the most votes should be the president of the United States,” Booker said at a CNN town hall. “But I want to tell you, for us ever to get to a point where we can address that issue, we have got to win this next election under the rules that are there now.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Pete Buttigieg (Dropped out)

Former mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg is no longer running for president. "It’s gotta go," Buttigieg told Post columnist Greg Sargent. "We need a national popular vote. It would be reassuring from the perspective of believing that we’re a democracy. But I also think it would be highly encouraging of voter participation on the national level."

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Julian Castro (Dropped out)

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro is no longer running for president. Castro tweeted support for a variety of voting changes in March, including eliminating the electoral college.

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Bill de Blasio (Dropped out)

Mayor, New York City

de Blasio is no longer running for president. “This is absolutely unprecedented, and I think it creates a huge question for our democracy. How is the president-elect going to proceed knowing that he had 2.3 million more people vote for his opponent,” de Blasio said in 2016, according to Politico.

Dec. 19: “Cast my Electoral College vote today. Still sick over a system that rejects the choice of a 2.8 million majority. End the E.C.!”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Kirsten Gillibrand (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, New York

Gillibrand is no longer running for president. Gillibrand supports eliminating the electoral college.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Jay Inslee (Dropped out)

Governor, Washington state

Inslee is no longer running for president. "It ought to be one person, one vote. The fastest way for this to happen is for other states to join Washington in a contract that we will vote our electoral ballots the way the popular vote goes, nationally. As soon as you get to a majority of states, you wouldn’t need a constitutional amendment."

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Seth Moulton (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

Moulton is no longer running for president. “We all know the obvious reason this needs to be replaced with a popular-vote system: In 2016, approximately 3 million more Americans voted for Hillary Clinton than Donald Trump, and yet, Trump is the president,” Moulton wrote in a Washington Post op-ed.

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke is no longer running for president. O'Rourke told The Post that he supports eliminating the electoral college, and in the meantime, improving it by having states award electors proportionally. "That would force whoever the Democratic and Republican nominees are to campaign everywhere, not writing anyone off or taking anyone for granted."

Mar. 19: “I think there’s a lot of wisdom in that.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Deval Patrick (Dropped out)

Former governor, Massachusetts

Patrick is no longer running for president. Patrick supports eliminating the electoral college in favor of the popular vote, his campaign told The Post. “The Electoral College is not democratic and, today, no longer reflects the popular will. Our leaders should be elected by a simple popular vote,” his democracy agenda said. “I will push for a Constitutional amendment to bring this about, and will support other efforts to assure that the popular vote determines the outcome through an interstate compact.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Deval Patrick
Patrick

Tom Steyer (Dropped out)

Billionaire activist

Steyer is no longer running for president. “I support eliminating the electoral college,” Steyer told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tom Steyer
Steyer

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. Swalwell supports abolishing the electoral college, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell

Elizabeth Warren (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren is no longer running for president. "Full voting rights are key to ensuring working people across our country have a say in the direction America goes," Warren told The Post. "Every vote matters — and that’s why I have called for an end to the electoral college in favor of the national popular vote movement."

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson (Dropped out)

Author

Williamson is no longer running for president. "Changes to the Constitution should not be taken lightly, but at this point there is too much of a risk to our democracy when the popular vote can be so easily overridden," Williamson told The Post. "Therefore, I do support the elimination of the electoral college."

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Open to it

Open to it

Kamala D. Harris (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, California

Harris is no longer running for president. "I'm open to the discussion," Harris told Jimmy Kimmel. "I mean, there's no question that the popular vote has been diminished in terms of making the final decision about who's the president of the United States and we need to deal with that."

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Amy Klobuchar (Dropped out)

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is no longer running for president. Klobuchar is open to eliminating the electoral college, she told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Tim Ryan (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan is no longer running for president. Ryan “is open to eliminating the electoral college in favor of the popular vote, but believes the focus should instead be on the issues front and center on the minds of most Americans -- which are jobs, wages, and health care,” a campaign spokesman said.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

No, but reform it

No, but reform it

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard supports reforming the electoral college or exploring the Proportional Plan but doesn’t want to eliminate it, she told The Post. “I think it’s unfortunate that too often these calls for changes come about by the side that has lost or suffered as a result of the Electoral College,” she told the Concord Monitor.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Andrew Yang (Dropped out)

Tech entrepreneur

Yang is no longer running for president. "Abolishing the electoral college would be difficult and would wind up further favoring high-density high-population areas with big media markets that would be the focus of national campaigns," Yang told The Post. "It’s also a bad message to send that losing elections should be responded to by changing the rules set forward in our Constitution. That said, I do believe there are changes to be made to the way we select the president, including how electors are apportioned and implementing ranked-choice voting, that would improve our democracy."

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

No

No

Joe Biden

Former vice president

Biden does not support eliminating the electoral college, he told the New York Times editorial board.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Mike Bloomberg (Dropped out)

Former New York mayor

Bloomberg is no longer running for president. Bloomberg does not support eliminating the electoral college in favor of the popular vote, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Mike Bloomberg
Bloomberg

Steve Bullock (Dropped out)

Governor, Montana

Bullock is no longer running for president. “No,” Bullock told The Post. “While it is troubling that in two of the last five elections the popular vote and the electoral college vote had different results, we need to focus on why Democrats aren’t winning some communities rather than scrap an institution that has been around since our nation’s founding. Even if we cobble together 271 electoral votes, we won’t be able to lead our nation forward if we aren’t including every community. The bigger issue is that we need to not just win, but govern.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

John Delaney (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney is no longer running for president. "If I was starting from scratch, yes, but trying to abolish the electoral college now is impractical," Delaney told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

John Hickenlooper (Dropped out)

Former governor, Colorado

Hickenlooper is no longer running for president. "While many of us are frustrated with the way the electoral college works ... there is no possibility of abolishing it in the near term," Hickenlooper told The Post. "So we need to focus on expanding the Democratic electorate — going into suburbs and rural areas."

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Joe Sestak (Dropped out)

Former U.S. representative, Pennsylvania

Sestak is no longer running for president. “Maintain it for now, and could consider changing if there was due consideration of the affect this would have on representation by rural communities,” Sestak told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Sestak
Sestak
See 9 other questions

Other questions include the filibuster, voting rights, D.C. statehood and more

Additionally, The Post analyzed more than 9,200 social media posts to discover what issues candidates were prioritizing in their messaging.

Tell us what we should ask next

We’ll continue to survey candidates throughout the primary season, and update as new candidates enter the race.

What else do you what to know from the candidates? We’re taking suggestions for future pages.

How we compiled candidate positions

The Washington Post sent detailed questionnaires to every Democratic campaign asking whether they support various policies. We organized candidates with similar stances into groups using a combination of those answers, legislative records, action taken in an executive role and other public comments, such as policy discussion on campaign websites, social media posts, interviews, town halls and other news reports.

Wayne Messam, mayor of Miramar, Fla., reported $0 in spending during the 3rd quarter of 2019. As a result, he is no longer considered a "major candidate" in the Post's 2020 coverage and has been removed from this project.

See something that we missed? Let us know.

By Kevin Uhrmacher and Kevin Schaul. Paulina Firozi, Laura Meckler, Michael Scherer, Jeff Stein, John Muyskens, Juliet Eilperin, Dino Grandoni and Anne Gearan contributed reporting.

Candidate illustrations by Ben Kirchner.

Kevin Uhrmacher

Kevin Uhrmacher is a graphics editor for politics covering elections and public policy at The Washington Post.

Kevin Schaul

Kevin Schaul is a senior graphics editor for The Washington Post. He covers national politics and public policy using data and visuals.

Michael Scherer

Michael Scherer is a national political reporter at The Washington Post. He was previously the Washington bureau chief for Time magazine, where he also served as the White House correspondent. Before joining Time, he was the Washington correspondent for Salon.com.

Jeff Stein

Jeff Stein is a policy reporter for The Washington Post. He was a crime reporter for the Syracuse Post-Standard and, in 2014, founded the local news nonprofit the Ithaca Voice in Upstate New York. He was also a reporter for Vox.

Laura Meckler

Laura Meckler is a national education writer covering national trends, federal policy and the Education Department. She came to The Washington Post from the Wall Street Journal, where her beats included presidential politics, the White House, health care, immigration and demographics.

Paulina Firozi

Paulina Firozi is a researcher helping to produce and report for The Health 202 and The Energy 202 newsletters.

John Muyskens

John Muyskens is a graphics editor at the Washington Post specializing in data reporting.

Anne Gearan

Anne Gearan is a White House correspondent for The Washington Post, with a focus on foreign policy and national security. She covered the Hillary Clinton campaign and the State Department for The Post before joining the White House beat. She joined the paper in 2012.

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