We’re asking 2020 Democrats where they stand on key issues

A record number of candidates are running for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination. To provide voters with a clear sense of what these candidates are for and against, The Post is publishing a series of pages laying out their policy stances.

We are sending detailed questionnaires to every Democratic campaign asking for their stances on various issues, and supplementing their answers with past positions and public statements. In some cases, the answers candidates give us represent their first on-the-record stance on key policies. We’re then organizing their responses into easily-digestible groups to show how the field is divided.

So far, we have surveyed candidates and published pages on three issue areas:

Below we’ve included just one question of many for each issue area. Click through to see the full set of questions.

Climate change

Do you support the Green New Deal resolution?

Yes

Yes, supports

Candidates who co-sponsored or endorsed the Green New Deal resolution.

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“Biden believes the Green New Deal is a crucial framework for meeting the climate challenges we face. It powerfully captures two basic truths, which are at the core of his plan: (1) the United States urgently needs to embrace greater ambition on an epic scale to meet the scope of this challenge, and (2) our environment and our economy are completely and totally connected,” his climate change plan said. Biden adopts the rhetoric — and at times, the actual policy proposals — of the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Cory Booker

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Pete Buttigieg

Mayor, South Bend, Ind.

Buttigieg supports the Green New Deal resolution, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Julian Castro

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro supports the Green New Deal, he told The Post.

Jan. 12: “We're gonna say no to subsidizing big oil and say yes to passing a Green New Deal.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Bill de Blasio

Mayor, New York City

“Yes, I support the Green New Deal resolution,” de Blasio told The Post. “In New York City we have already begun implementing a Green New Deal. Our Green New Deal policy centers on a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at city buildings, the equivalent of removing 1.3 million cars from the roads, while creating more than 25,000 high quality jobs. Along with other policies, the buildings mandate puts NYC on a path to reduce carbon emissions by 40% by 2030 and to carbon neutrality by 2050.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

“I support the carbon neutrality goals of the Green New Deal and the awareness it has brought across the country on the critical issues of energy independence and the climate crisis, however, I do not support ‘leaving the door open’ to nuclear power unless and until there is a permanent solution to the problem of nuclear waste," Gabbard told The Post. "I believe we need to invest in 100% renewable and safe energy sources like wind, solar, and geothermal." Gabbard did not co-sponsor the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Kirsten Gillibrand

U.S. senator, New York

Gillibrand “was one of the first supporters of the Green New Deal, a moonshot strategy that would take major steps to save our planet by investing in infrastructure, creating a green jobs economy and protecting clean air and water,” Gillibrand's campaign website said. She co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Kamala D. Harris

U.S. senator, California

Harris co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution.

Apr. 24: “We must take climate change seriously and act with a sense of urgency. The clock is ticking and we can do something about it. I support the #GreenNewDeal because every day we wait is a day we fail future generations.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Jay Inslee

Governor, Washington state

“I applaud Sen. Markey and Rep. Ocasio-Cortez for introducing the Green New Deal resolution," Inslee told The Post. "I have rolled out an ambitious Climate Mission, a 10-year mobilization that would move America to 100% clean energy and create 8 million jobs in a clean energy economy. I'm honored that Rep. Ocasio-Cortez and many of the grassroots leaders behind the Green New Deal have praised my plan as the most comprehensive plan towards a clean energy future.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Seth Moulton

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

“I was one of the first to sign onto the resolution, but ... I have my own views on the details,” Moulton told The Post. “Rather than a jobs guarantee and forcing everyone onto Medicare-for-All ... we need policies like a skills guarantee, a carbon tax, and the Federal Green Corps, which is part of my vision for dramatically expanding national service.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O’Rourke “supports the Green New Deal’s ambition in terms of the speed, size, and scale of sacrifice needed,” a campaign spokesman told The Post, calling for “investments in renewable energy and ... transition away from greenhouse gas-emitting energy sources to reach the goal of net-zero emissions by 2050.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

Sanders “not only cosponsored the Green New Deal resolution in the Senate, he will fight to pass a Green New Deal to generate millions of jobs and save American families money by transforming our energy system away from fossil fuels to 100 percent energy efficiency and sustainable energy,” a campaign spokesman told The Post. ”A Green New Deal will protect workers and the communities in which they live to ensure a transition to family-sustaining wage, union jobs and a green, sustainable economy.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. Swalwell co-sponsored the Green New Deal resolution.

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell

Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

“I am an original cosponsor of the Green New Deal resolution, which commits the United States to meet 100 percent of our power demand through clean, renewable, and zero-emission energy sources,” Warren told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson

Author

“A Green New Deal would provide an overall strategy for how clean energy, sustainable infrastructure and transportation, and a national green jobs program can revitalize our economy and utilize our innovative and human capacity to benefit all our people,” Williamson's campaign site said. “While it doesn’t cover the whole range of measures we must undertake to reverse global warming, it is an important step, therefore I support it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Andrew Yang

Tech entrepreneur

“I love the vision. I applaud the vision and the ambition. We need to head in that direction,” Yang said in a video he shared on Facebook.

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Prefers something else

Prefers something else

Others preferred a different plan, or cheered the ambition but questioned how realistic it was.

Michael Bennet

U.S. senator, Colorado

“The Green New Deal has lifted the climate change debate and set strong goals, both of which are critically important. But it also includes policies such as paid vacation and affordable housing, which we should evaluate on their own merits, but not in a climate plan,” Bennet told The Post. “My plan catalyzes $10 trillion in private sector investment at home and abroad; it sets the first and most ambitious goal in history to conserve 30% of our lands and oceans, and it achieves net zero emissions as fast as possible and no later than by 2050 ...”

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Steve Bullock

Governor, Montana

“I believe US climate policy must be ambitious, durable, and that a bipartisan foundation is essential to meeting long term climate goals,” Bullock told The Post. “As for the particulars of the resolution introduced in Congress, we can do better with a more focused plan ... we should significantly increase renewable energy, reverse the Trump Administration’s cuts to fuel efficiency standards and expand them to address the 37% of emissions that come from transportation, improve energy efficiency which could account for 30% of our overall goal, and follow the IPCC’s recommendation to invest in carbon capture.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

John Delaney

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney does not support the Green New Deal, he told The Post. He has introduced a climate plan centered on a carbon tax.

Feb. 14: “The Green New Deal as it has been proposed is about as realistic as Trump saying that Mexico is going to pay for the wall. Let's focus on what's possible, not what's impossible. #GND #GreenNewDeal”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

John Hickenlooper

Former governor, Colorado

“The resolution sets unachievable goals,” Hickenlooper wrote in a Post op-ed in March. “We do not yet have the technology needed to reach ‘net-zero greenhouse gas emissions’ in 10 years. That’s why many wind and solar companies don’t support it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Wayne Messam

Mayor, Miramar, Fla.

“I support the urgency and end goal of the Green New Deal,” Messam told The Post. “We absolutely need bold ideas that will meet the scale of this crisis, and I’m encouraged that the resolution is spurring a much-needed debate ... As a resident of Florida, a state directly affected by climate change, I will roll out my own policy, including renewable energy markers, to help Americans prepare for the future.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Wayne Messam
Messam

Tim Ryan

U.S. representative, Ohio

“The Green New Deal Resolution does a great job of outlining the critical economic and environmental issues facing our nation, and how addressing the nexus of the two [is essential],” Ryan told The Post, but he said he does not support some aspects such as job guarantees and universal basic income.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan
See 8 other climate change questions

Other questions include nuclear power plants, carbon tax, fracking and more

Immigration

Do you support extending the existing physical barriers on the U.S.-Mexico border?

No

No, does not support

These candidates said they would not support adding any more wall along the Southern border

Cory Booker

U.S. senator, New Jersey

“I do not believe that building more physical security barriers is in our national best interest or makes us safer,” Booker told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Julian Castro

Former mayor, San Antonio

“We need to assess how new technologies and practices can provide alternatives to a barrier, which can at times be costly and environmentally intrusive,” Castro told The Post. “My ‘People First’ immigration plan would pursue an evidence-based approach to determining what investments we will make at the border to combat criminal actions like human and drug trafficking.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Bill de Blasio

Mayor, New York City

De Blasio does not support extending the physical barriers, his campaign told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Kamala D. Harris

U.S. senator, California

“Let me be very clear. I'm not going to vote for a wall under any circumstances. And I do support border security. And if we want to talk about that, let's do that,” Harris said at a CNN town hall event. “The idea that we're going to sell this thing to the American public and require the taxpayers of our country to pay $5 billion for something that will not deliver what [President Trump] is suggesting we need is ridiculous and I will not support it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

John Hickenlooper

Former governor, Colorado

Hickenlooper does not support extending the U.S.-Mexico border barrier, his campaign told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Jay Inslee

Governor, Washington state

“As a member of Congress, I consistently voted against draconian border barriers, and against utilizing local police to enforce our immigration laws,” Inslee told The Post. “I will end Trump’s vain pursuit of a wall.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Seth Moulton

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

“We need secure borders but building a medieval border wall isn’t how we get there; instead, we need sensors, surveillance drones and next-generation security technology to strengthen the border where it’s needed most,” Moulton told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke told MSNBC that he would "absolutely" take down parts of the wall near El Paso, but said, “I think there are in some places a need for a physical barrier,” he said in February. “I would work with local stakeholders, the property owners, the communities, those who actually live there, to determine the best security solution.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Tim Ryan

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan does not support extending the U.S.-Mexico border barrier, his campaign told The Post. “I support smarter, more efficient and effective security at the border that makes better use of our country’s available technologies, border security personnel and other resources,” he said.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

“I do not support adding to existing physical barriers along the border and would immediately halt any use of taxpayer dollars for President Trump’s wasteful and ineffective border wall,” Sanders told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

“I do not support building a wall,” Warren told The Post.

Mar. 18: “The border wall isn’t about security, or making America safer. It’s a monument to hate and division, and I won’t support it. We are a better country than that. ”

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Only if experts recommend it

Only if experts recommend it

Others said they would consider the input of experts and local communities before ruling it out

Michael Bennet

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet only supports extending the physical barrier if experts recommend it, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Steve Bullock

Governor, Montana

“If experts say that placing barriers in certain areas will serve that purpose, then I’d be in favor of giving them what they needed”, Bullock told The Post. “I also believe there are many modern technologies that can be deployed effectively. However, I strongly oppose building a wall for its own sake.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

Pete Buttigieg

Mayor, South Bend, Ind.

“Secure borders and a well-managed immigration system are critical to national security,” Buttigieg told The Post. “We shouldn't fall into the trap of defining border security by a 'wall' or security barriers alone, but by a more complete set of tools and evolving technology to meet the threats not only of today, but what we may face tomorrow.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

John Delaney

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

“I support investing in smart border security as part of comprehensive immigration reform, which can include technology, personnel and physical barriers where experts deem necessary,” Delaney told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard only supports extending the physical barrier if experts recommend it, her campaign told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Wayne Messam

Mayor, Miramar, Fla.

“No, I do not support the arbitrary extension of security barriers in the form of just building a wall,” Messam told The Post. “I do support the combined use of technology, including drones, surveillance systems and some physical barriers, to protecting our borders.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Wayne Messam
Messam

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. “Unless evidence and experts suggest we need new fencing, I will not support additional fencing. We should always be assessing this, but Trump’s promise to build a wall all the way along the border is too costly, ineffective and absurd,” Swalwell told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell

Marianne Williamson

Author

“We need border security. The best way to provide security is not more or fewer walls, but efficient, effective border security driven by technology, particularly at points of entry,” Williamson told The Post. “I do not support open borders; I do support open hearts so people are treated humanely. Most unauthorized immigrants enter the United States legally, then simply overstay their visas. No increase in border security, including walls, will impact this most common route into our nation.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Andrew Yang

Tech entrepreneur

“Walls generally aren’t an effective way of stopping illegal border crossings,” Yang told The Post. “I don’t think it’s worth it to tear down existing barriers, but I wouldn’t support adding more unless their utility could be demonstrated in a particular part of the border.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Unclear/No response

Unclear/No response

Candidates who do not appear to have addressed the question, or who have not returned responses.

Joe Biden

Former vice president

Biden said in 2018 that he was "inclined" to support a hypothetical deal with President Trump to add to current southern border barriers, if they added to national security and it was part of a deal to give a path to citizenship to immigrants who had arrived in the country as children. "I don't care about his political victory," Biden said of Trump. He did not provide an answer to this question.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Kirsten Gillibrand

U.S. senator, New York

“I’d have to ask folks in that part of the country to see whether the fencing that exists today is helpful or unhelpful,” Gillibrand told Fox News Channel when asked whether she would consider removing parts of the wall. She had not clarified her position on adding physical barriers.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator, Minnesota

“I support smart security at our borders and oppose the Administration’s proposal to build a wall across our entire southern border,” Klobuchar's Senate website says. Klobuchar told ABC's George Stephanopolous that “we have tried to negotiate with [President Trump], but he won't take yes for an answer,” in response to a question about border wall funding.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar
See 10 other immigration questions

Other questions include abolishing ICE, a pathway to citizenship, E-Verify and more

Health care

Do you support Medicare-for-all?

Supports some version of it

Supports some version of it

Not all have been specific about how far they’re willing to go in support of single-payer health care.

Cory Booker

U.S. senator, New Jersey

Booker co-sponsored Sen. Bernie Sanders’s Medicare-for-all bill, but has said he wouldn’t do away with private health insurance. He has backed proposals to lower Medicare’s eligibility age to 50 and to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces.

March 11: “Medicare for All is the best way to ensure that every American has access to quality, affordable health care.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Pete Buttigieg

Mayor, South Bend, Ind.

In a CNN town hall, Buttigieg said the "best way" to move toward a Medicare-for-all system is to "take some flavor of Medicare, you make it available on the exchange as a kind of public option, and you invite people to buy into it."

Feb. 15: “That's why I believe we do need to move in the direction of a Medicare-for-all system.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Julian Castro

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro has said Medicare “should be there for everybody,” but has not backed a particular bill or specific Medicare-for-all proposal.

Dec. 13: “I believe that we need Medicare-for-all.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Bill de Blasio

Mayor, New York City

“Yes, I support moving America's health care system to a Medicare-for-all system,” de Blasio told The Post. “I believe healthcare is a human right and we must adopt a Medicare-for-all system to ensure that all Americans have access to high-quality health services no matter their means.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard co-sponsed the Medicare for All Act.

Feb. 2: “We have to fight to make sure that every single American gets the quality health care that they need through Medicare-for-all.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard

Kirsten Gillibrand

U.S. senator, New York

A co-sponsor of Sanders’s 2017 bill, Gillibrand has also backed proposals to lower Medicare’s age of eligibility to 50 and to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces.

Jan. 13: “Passing Medicare for All ... so families would never again have to worry about affording a trip to the doctor or the prescriptions they need.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Kamala D. Harris

U.S. senator, California

Harris sparked a debate when she said she’d be willing to end private health insurance. She co-sponsored Sanders’s bill in 2017 and has also backed proposals to lower Medicare’s age of eligibility to 50 and to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces.

Feb. 15: “We need Medicare-for-all to bring dignity to millions.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Wayne Messam

Mayor, Miramar, Fla.

“Medicare-for-all is one of the better ideas to help solve the problem,” Messam told The Post. He also said he would support the Medicare for America plan that maintains private insurance.

Candidate positions highlighted
Wayne Messam
Messam

Tim Ryan

U.S. representative, Ohio

“We need to think big when it comes to making healthcare more accessible and affordable, which is why I am a long time supporter of Medicare for All,” Ryan told The Post. “But as we move towards that ultimate goal, we need to be realistic on how we get there. That is why I also support making modifications to the Affordable Care Act and adding public option that would allow Americans to buy into Medicare without eliminating private health insurance options until we as a country can implement Medicare for All in a way that will move our country forward." Ryan co-sponsored the Medicare for All Act.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

Thanks to his 2016 presidential run and 2017 proposal, Sanders’s Medicare-for-all has become one of the major litmus tests in the 2020 primary. He's running again, but this time many other candidates in the race support single-payer health care.

Feb. 19: “... the time is long overdue for the United States to join every other major country on Earth and guarantee health care to all people as a right ...”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

Warren co-sponsored Sen. Bernie Sanders’s Medicare-for-all bill in 2017 but has kept details broad on the campaign trail. She said there are “different ways” to get to “affordable health care for every American.” She also signed onto a bill to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces.

Feb. 14: “... of course we can afford to invest in making sure every American has health care.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson

Author

Williamson says she will “support high-quality universal coverage for every American, including a Medicare for all model.”

Feb. 21: “We’ve been trained to expect too little, reduced to haggling for things that should be considered everyone’s right.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Andrew Yang

Tech entrepreneur

Yang said he wants to “move in the direction of a single-payer system” either through expanding Medicare to everyone or creating a new system.

Feb. 16: “We need to provide high-quality health care to all Americans and a single-payer system is the most efficient way to accomplish that. ”

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Prefers something else

Prefers something else

Others have proposed different plans to reach universal coverage, such as providing a public option.

Michael Bennet

U.S. senator, Colorado

"When you tell people the first thing about Medicare for All — either that it takes insurance away from 180 million Americans that have it through their employer or the taxes we would have to pay to afford that $30 trillion program — that 70 percent support falls to the mid-30s,” Bennet told CNN. “I think we need to level with the American people.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Joe Biden

Former vice president

“I understand the appeal of Medicare-for-all, but folks supporting it should be clear that it means getting rid of Obamacare, and I’m not for that,” Biden said in a video. His health plan backs “giving Americans a new choice, a public health insurance option like Medicare.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Steve Bullock

Governor, Montana

Bullock told The Post that he prefers something other than Medicare-for-all.

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

John Delaney

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

Delaney supports universal health care but says Sen. Bernie Sanders’s Medicare-for-all bill is not the way. He has proposed his own system that leaves Medicare in place for people over 65 and creates a new public plan for people under 65.

Feb. 18: “I think we should have universal health care in this country but I don't think we should get there by making private insurance illegal.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

John Hickenlooper

Former governor, Colorado

Of Medicare-for-all, Hickenlooper said, "I reject the notion that it should become a litmus test of what it takes to be a good Democrat."

Feb. 14: “We are not going to stop until we get universal coverage.”

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Jay Inslee

Governor, Washington state

Inslee introduced a public option bill to offer a state-run health insurance plan.

Feb. 4: “Right now we need to embrace the things that we can have to move toward universal health coverage.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar prefers offering a Medicaid-type plan, embracing a bill to create a Medicaid-based public health-care option on state insurance marketplaces. She also signed onto a bill to lower the Medicare eligibilityage to 50.

Feb. 18: “It could be a possibility in the future. I'm just looking at something that will work now. ”

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Seth Moulton

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

Moulton prefers updating Medicare through a public option and competition with private insurers, he said in a Facebook post.

April 22: “... as a recipient of single-payer healthcare through the VA, which has a history of problems, I don’t believe we should force everyone to accept a one-size-fits-all government plan.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke supports Medicare for America, a campaign spokesman told The Post, adding that “it is the surest way to get to guaranteed, universal coverage while dramatically decreasing out-of-pocket-costs. Under his plan, everyone without care would be enrolled in Medicare and those with insufficient care could choose Medicare. Those with employer-sponsored insurance can opt for Medicare. He believes that people who have insurance that works for them should be able to keep it.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. “I support coverage for all, i.e., Medicare for all who want it,” Swalwell told The Post. “This would serve as a public option for any American, operating alongside and competing with private insurance plans, in order to drive prices down for everyone. If you’re sick you should be seen, and if you’re seen you shouldn’t go broke.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell
See 7 other health-care questions

Other questions include private insurance, prescription drug prices and more

Changes to democracy

Do you support eliminating the electoral college in favor of the popular vote?

Eliminate it

Eliminate it

Michael Bennet

U.S. senator, Colorado

Bennet has run Facebook ads calling for an end to the electoral college. "The electoral college is outdated," the posts said. "Americans should directly elect our presidents."

Candidate positions highlighted
Michael Bennet
Bennet

Cory Booker

U.S. senator, New Jersey

“I believe very simply that, in presidential elections, the person with the most votes should be the president of the United States,” Booker said at a CNN town hall. “But I want to tell you, for us ever to get to a point where we can address that issue, we have got to win this next election under the rules that are there now.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Cory Booker
Booker

Pete Buttigieg

Mayor, South Bend, Ind.

"It’s gotta go," Buttigieg told Post columnist Greg Sargent. "We need a national popular vote. It would be reassuring from the perspective of believing that we’re a democracy. But I also think it would be highly encouraging of voter participation on the national level."

Candidate positions highlighted
Pete Buttigieg
Buttigieg

Julian Castro

Former mayor, San Antonio

Castro tweeted support for a variety of voting changes in March, including eliminating the electoral college.

Candidate positions highlighted
Julian Castro
Castro

Bill de Blasio

Mayor, New York City

“This is absolutely unprecedented, and I think it creates a huge question for our democracy. How is the president-elect going to proceed knowing that he had 2.3 million more people vote for his opponent,” de Blasio said in 2016, according to Politico.

Dec. 19: “Cast my Electoral College vote today. Still sick over a system that rejects the choice of a 2.8 million majority. End the E.C.!”

Candidate positions highlighted
Bill de Blasio
de Blasio

Kirsten Gillibrand

U.S. senator, New York

Gillibrand supports eliminating the electoral college.

Candidate positions highlighted
Kirsten Gillibrand
Gillibrand

Jay Inslee

Governor, Washington state

"It ought to be one person, one vote. The fastest way for this to happen is for other states to join Washington in a contract that we will vote our electoral ballots the way the popular vote goes, nationally. As soon as you get to a majority of states, you wouldn’t need a constitutional amendment."

Candidate positions highlighted
Jay Inslee
Inslee

Wayne Messam

Mayor, Miramar, Fla.

"It’s very rare that I will say this, but Donald Trump was correct. He once called the electoral college a ‘disaster for democracy.’ Boy, was he right," Messam told The Post. “If we believe [every vote counts], we shouldn’t have a system where a candidate can lose by three million votes and somehow be declared the winner. The electoral college forces candidates to cater to certain people in certain states. ... That doesn’t make for a good democracy, and we should do away with it and reform our elections.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Wayne Messam
Messam

Seth Moulton

U.S. representative, Massachusetts

“We all know the obvious reason this needs to be replaced with a popular-vote system: In 2016, approximately 3 million more Americans voted for Hillary Clinton than Donald Trump, and yet, Trump is the president,” Moulton wrote in a Washington Post op-ed.

Candidate positions highlighted
Seth Moulton
Moulton

Beto O'Rourke

Former U.S. representative, Texas

O'Rourke told The Post that he supports eliminating the electoral college, and in the meantime, improving it by having states award electors proportionally. "That would force whoever the Democratic and Republican nominees are to campaign everywhere, not writing anyone off or taking anyone for granted."

Mar. 19: “I think there’s a lot of wisdom in that.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Beto O'Rourke
O'Rourke

Eric Swalwell (Dropped out)

U.S. representative, California

Swalwell is no longer running for president. Swalwell supports abolishing the electoral college, he told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Eric Swalwell
Swalwell

Elizabeth Warren

U.S. senator, Massachusetts

"Full voting rights are key to ensuring working people across our country have a say in the direction America goes," Warren told The Post. "Every vote matters — and that’s why I have called for an end to the electoral college in favor of the national popular vote movement."

Candidate positions highlighted
Elizabeth Warren
Warren

Marianne Williamson

Author

"Changes to the Constitution should not be taken lightly, but at this point there is too much of a risk to our democracy when the popular vote can be so easily overridden," Williamson told The Post. "Therefore, I do support the elimination of the electoral college."

Candidate positions highlighted
Marianne Williamson
Williamson

Open to eliminating

Open to eliminating

Kamala D. Harris

U.S. senator, California

"I'm open to the discussion," Harris told Jimmy Kimmel. "I mean, there's no question that the popular vote has been diminished in terms of making the final decision about who's the president of the United States and we need to deal with that."

Candidate positions highlighted
Kamala Harris
Harris

Amy Klobuchar

U.S. senator, Minnesota

Klobuchar is open to eliminating the electoral college, she told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Amy Klobuchar
Klobuchar

Tim Ryan

U.S. representative, Ohio

Ryan “is open to eliminating the electoral college in favor of the popular vote, but believes the focus should instead be on the issues front and center on the minds of most Americans -- which are jobs, wages, and health care,” a campaign spokesman said.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tim Ryan
Ryan

Bernie Sanders

U.S. senator, Vermont

"I believe that it is hard to defend the current system in which one candidate receives 3 million votes less than his opponent, but still becomes president," Sanders told The Post. "Further, presidential elections cannot be fought out in just a dozen "battleground" states. I believe that we need to reexamine the concept of the electoral college."

Candidate positions highlighted
Bernie Sanders
Sanders

Maintain it

Maintain it

Steve Bullock

Governor, Montana

“No,” Bullock told The Post. “While it is troubling that in two of the last five elections the popular vote and the electoral college vote had different results, we need to focus on why Democrats aren’t winning some communities rather than scrap an institution that has been around since our nation’s founding. Even if we cobble together 271 electoral votes, we won’t be able to lead our nation forward if we aren’t including every community. The bigger issue is that we need to not just win, but govern.”

Candidate positions highlighted
Steve Bullock
Bullock

John Delaney

Former U.S. representative, Maryland

"If I was starting from scratch, yes, but trying to abolish the electoral college now is impractical," Delaney told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
John Delaney
Delaney

John Hickenlooper

Former governor, Colorado

"While many of us are frustrated with the way the electoral college works ... there is no possibility of abolishing it in the near term," Hickenlooper told The Post. "So we need to focus on expanding the Democratic electorate — going into suburbs and rural areas."

Candidate positions highlighted
John Hickenlooper
Hickenlooper

Andrew Yang

Tech entrepreneur

"Abolishing the electoral college would be difficult and would wind up further favoring high-density high-population areas with big media markets that would be the focus of national campaigns," Yang told The Post. "It’s also a bad message to send that losing elections should be responded to by changing the rules set forward in our Constitution. That said, I do believe there are changes to be made to the way we select the president, including how electors are apportioned and implementing ranked-choice voting, that would improve our democracy."

Candidate positions highlighted
Andrew Yang
Yang

Unclear/No response

Unclear/No response

Joe Biden

Former vice president

Biden did not provide an answer to this question.

Candidate positions highlighted
Joe Biden
Biden

Tulsi Gabbard

U.S. representative, Hawaii

Gabbard supports reforming the electoral college or exploring the Proportional Plan but doesn’t want to eliminate it, she told The Post.

Candidate positions highlighted
Tulsi Gabbard
Gabbard
See 9 other questions

Other questions include the filibuster, voting rights, D.C. statehood and more

Additionally, The Post analyzed more than 9,200 social media posts to discover what issues candidates were prioritizing in their messaging.

Tell us what we should ask next

We’ll continue to survey candidates throughout the primary season, and update as new candidates enter the race.

What else do you what to know from the candidates? We’re taking suggestions for future pages.

How we compiled candidate positions

The Washington Post sent detailed questionnaires to every Democratic campaign asking whether they support various policies. We organized candidates with similar stances into groups using a combination of those answers, legislative records, action taken in an executive role and other public comments, such as policy discussion on campaign websites, social media posts, interviews, town halls and other news reports. See something that we missed? Let us know.

By Kevin Uhrmacher and Kevin Schaul. Paulina Firozi, Michael Scherer, Jeff Stein, John Muyskens, Juliet Eilperin and Dino Grandoni contributed reporting.

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