Partisan gerrymandering

Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Dissented Roberts: Dissented Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

The court ruled that independent commissions may draw electoral district lines, saying that the people have a right to try to make the congressional redistricting process less partisan.

EPA pollution rules

Michigan v. EPA

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Dissented Ginsburg: Dissented Ginsburg
Breyer: Dissented Breyer
Sotomayor: Dissented Sotomayor
Kagan: Dissented Kagan
Voted with majority Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Roberts: Voted with majority Roberts
Scalia: Voted with majority Scalia
Thomas: Voted with majority Thomas
Alito: Voted with majority Alito

The court dealt a major blow to the Obama administration’s efforts to reduce emissions of toxic mercury from coal-burning power plants, saying federal regulators failed to properly consider the costs of pollution controls.

Lethal injection

Glossip v. Gross

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Dissented Ginsburg: Dissented Ginsburg
Breyer: Dissented Breyer
Sotomayor: Dissented Sotomayor
Kagan: Dissented Kagan
Voted with majority Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Roberts: Voted with majority Roberts
Scalia: Voted with majority Scalia
Thomas: Voted with majority Thomas
Alito: Voted with majority Alito

The court ruled to uphold a procedure used by states to carry out executions by lethal injection. The justices were considering a challenge brought by death-row inmates in Oklahoma, who allege that the use of a sedative called midazolam has resulted in troubling executions that violate the Constitution’s prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment.

Same-sex marriage

Obergefell v. Hodges

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Dissented Roberts: Dissented Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

A deeply divided Supreme Court delivered a historic victory for gay rights, ruling that the Constitution requires that same-sex couples be allowed to marry no matter where they live.

Affordable Care Act

King v. Burwell

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Roberts: Voted with majority Roberts
Dissented Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

The court upheld a key part of the Affordable Care Act that provides health insurance subsidies to all qualifying Americans, awarding a major victory to President Obama and validating his most prized domestic achievement.

Housing discrimination

Texas Dept. of Housing and Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Project

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Dissented Roberts: Dissented Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

The court upheld the use of "disparate impact" cases in fighting housing discrimination, ruling that federal law allows people to challenge housing practices that have a harmful impact on minority groups, even without proof of intentional discrimination.

Confederate flag on license plates

Walker v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Dissented Kennedy: Dissented Kennedy
Roberts: Dissented Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Voted with majority Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

The court ruled that messages displayed on specialized license plates are a form of government speech and Texas is free to reject a proposed design that features the Confederate flag.

Separation of powers, Jerusalem on passports

Zivotofsky v. Kerry

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Dissented Roberts: Dissented Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Voted with majority Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

The court struck down as unconstitutional a congressional attempt to allow Americans born in the contested city of Jerusalem to list Israel as their birthplace on passports, affirming the principle that the president alone has the power to recognize foreign nations.

Threats on social media

Elonis v. U.S.

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Roberts: Voted with majority Roberts
Scalia: Voted with majority Scalia
Dissented Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Voted with majority Alito

The court made it harder for prosecutors to convict those who make violent statements on Facebook and other social media, saying it is not enough that an ordinary person would find the rants threatening.

Pregnancy discrimination

Young v. United Parcel Service

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Dissented Kennedy: Dissented Kennedy
Roberts: Voted with majority Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Voted with majority Alito

The court clarified the legal protections for pregnant workers who believe their employers have discriminated against them and revived the lawsuit of a former United Parcel Service worker who did not receive the accommodation she requested.

Judicial candidate contributions

Williams-Yulee v. Florida Bar

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Dissented Kennedy: Dissented Kennedy
Roberts: Voted with majority Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

The court ruled that states may forbid judicial candidates from personally soliciting campaign contributions.The decision upheld a Florida law that is similar to others in 29 states that elect judges but restrict their role in campaign fundraising.

Employment discrimination

EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Roberts: Voted with majority Roberts
Scalia: Voted with majority Scalia
Dissented Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Voted with majority Alito

The court fortified federal employment discrimination laws, ruling for a Muslim woman who said she had been denied a job at clothing retailer Abercrombie & Fitch because her headscarf conflicted with the company’s preppy dress code.

Racial gerrymandering

Alabama Legislative Black Caucus v. Alabama

Highlighted justices voted with majority

Voted with majority Ginsburg: Voted with majority Ginsburg
Breyer: Voted with majority Breyer
Sotomayor: Voted with majority Sotomayor
Kagan: Voted with majority Kagan
Kennedy: Voted with majority Kennedy
Dissented Roberts: Dissented Roberts
Scalia: Dissented Scalia
Thomas: Dissented Thomas
Alito: Dissented Alito

The court sided with black challengers and told a lower court to reconsider whether a redistricting plan drawn by Alabama’s Republican-led legislature packed minority voters into districts in order to dilute their influence.