On Thursday, the Trump administration released a preliminary 2018 budget proposal, which details many of the changes the president wants to make to the federal government’s spending. The proposal covers only discretionary, not mandatory, spending.

2017 FEDERAL BUDGET, RELEASED IN 2016

73%

Mandatory

Primarily Medicare, Social

Security and interest on

the debt

Discretionary

27%

Defense

This includes most of the operating budget for executive departments and agencies.

Everything

else

The proposed spending increase

would come out of non-defense discretionary programs.

SOME 2018 PROPOSED SPENDING INCREASES

Defense

$54B increase

Border wall

$2.6B increase

School choice

$1.4B increase

2017 FEDERAL BUDGET, RELEASED IN 2016

Discretionary

27%

Mandatory

73%

Everything

else

Defense

Primarily Medicare,

Social Security and

interest on the debt

SOME 2018 PROPOSED SPENDING INCREASES

The increases would come out of non-defense discretionary programs.

Border

wall

School

choice

This includes most of the operating budget for executive departments and agencies.

$1.4B

$2.6B

$54B

Defense spending increase

To pay for an increase in defense spending, a down payment on the border wall and school voucher programs, among other things, funding was cut from the discretionary budgets of other executive departments and agencies. The Environmental Protection Agency, the State Department and the Agriculture Department took the hardest hits. The proposal also eliminates funding for 19 agencies.

[ 40 years of budgets show shifting national priorities]

Environmental

Protection Agency

-31%

-29%

State Dept.

-21%

Agriculture Dept.

-21%

Labor Dept.

Dept. of Health and

Human Services

-18%

-16%

Commerce Dept.

-14%

Education Dept.

Dept. of Housing and

Urban Development

-13%

-13%

Transportation Dept.

-12%

Interior Dept.

-6%

Energy Dept.

-5%

Small Business Admin.

-4%

Treasury Dept.

-4%

Justice Dept.

-1%

NASA

+6%

Dept. of Veterans Affairs

Dept. of Homeland

Security

+7%

+9%

Defense Dept.

-31%

Environmental Protection Agency

-29%

State Department

-21%

Agriculture Department

-21%

Labor Department

-18%

Department of Health and Human Services

-16%

Commerce Department

-14%

Education Department

-13%

Department of Housing and Urban Development

-13%

Transportation Department

-12%

Interior Department

-6%

Energy Department

-5%

Small Business Administration

-4%

Treasury Department

-4%

Justice Department

-1%

NASA

+6%

Department of Veterans Affairs

+7%

Department of Homeland Security

+9%

Defense Department

Discretionary spending limits, addressed by this proposal, are set by congressional budget resolutions. Congress typically makes changes to the president’s proposal — last year, lawmakers disregarded Obama’s budget altogether. Mandatory spending, by contrast, is set by other laws and is often determined by the size of the benefit and the eligible population.

[ In Trump’s blueprint to reorder the federal government, echoes of Reagan ’81]

See how each agency’s discretionary funding would be affected by Trump’s proposal, in detail, below:

= $1 billion
= $500 million or less

Back to top

Agriculture Department

The Trump administration is seeking to cut 21 percent of the Agriculture Department's discretionary spending budget, though it hasn't detailed what precisely will be cut. The vulnerable programs include rural development and research grants but exclude SNAP (food stamps) and crop subsidies. The USDA will also reduce staff by an unspecified amount at various service center agencies around the country.

Eliminates the $200 million McGovern-Dole International Food for Education program

Eliminates the $500 million Water and Wastewater loan and grant program

Cuts Women, Infants and Children nutrition assistance from $6.4 billion to $6.2 billion

Unspecified staff reductions at USDA service center agencies around the country

Cuts $95 million from the Rural Business and Cooperative Service

2017 budget

$22.6B

2018 proposal

$17.9B

Decreased $4.7B (-21% change)

Back to top

Commerce Department

As part of a 16 percent reduction to the Department of Commerce’s budget, the Trump administration is proposing sharp cuts to climate-change and ocean research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Cuts $250 million from coastal research programs that ready communities for rising seas and worsening storms

Eliminates the popular $73 million Sea Grant program, which operates in conjunction with universities in 33 states

Eliminates the Economic Development Administration, which gives out grants in struggling communities

Cuts federal funding to the Manufacturing Extension Partnership

2017 budget

$9.2B

2018 proposal

$7.8B

Decreased $1.4B (-16% change)

Back to top

Defense Department

Under the Trump administration budget, the Defense Department would get a 9 percent increase in discretionary funding — but only about 3 percent more than what it spent last year. President Trump has cast it as a historic increase in defense spending, but critics say it is actually more of an incremental boost and much smaller than what he promised on the campaign trail.

Increases the size of the Army and Marine Corps

Increases the number of ships in the Navy's fleet

Buys F-35 Joint Strike Fighters more rapidly

Increases spending to keep Air Force combat planes ready to fly

2017 budget

$587.0B

2018 proposal

$639.0B

Increased $52.0B (+9% change)

Back to top

Education Department

The Education Department faces a 14 percent cut under the Trump administration budget, which would downsize or eliminate a raft of grants, including for teacher training, afterschool programs, and aid to low-income and minority college students. The cuts would be coupled with a historic investment — $1.4 billion — in charter schools, private schools and other school-choice initiatives.

Cuts $3.7 billion in grants for teacher training, after-school and summer programs, and aid programs to first-generation and low-income students

"Significantly" reduces federal work-study aid to college students

Increases charter school funding by $168 million

Creates new private-school choice program with $250 million

Spends $1 billion to encourage districts to allow federal dollars meant for low-income students to follow those students to the public school of their choice

2017 budget

$68.2B

2018 proposal

$59.0B

Decreased $9.2B (-14% change)

Back to top

Energy Department

The Trump budget proposal, which cuts the Energy Department's budget by 6 percent, would boost spending on managing the nation’s nuclear stockpile and revive the controversial Yucca Mountain storage facility for nuclear power plant waste. It would slash spending on a host of science and climate areas.

Cuts $900 million from the Office of Science

Eliminates the Energy Star, Weatherization Assistance Program, ARPA-E, Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Program, and Title 17 loan guarantees

Gives the Yucca Mountain project $120 million to restart licensing operations

2017 budget

$29.7B

2018 proposal

$28.0B

Decreased $1.7B (-6% change)

Back to top

Department of Health and Human Services

The Trump administration proposed an 18 percent decrease for HHS, one of the largest and most sprawling departments within the government. That sum excludes funding for the insurance provided by Medicare and Medicaid, two vast entitlement programs for older and lower-income Americans. In a rare move, those programs were omitted from the brief budget description the Trump administration has released.

Decreases funding for the National Institutes of Health and certain programs to train health professionals

Increases funding for efforts to prevent and treat opioid addictions

2017 budget

$84.1B

2018 proposal

$69.0B

Decreased $15.1B (-18% change)

Back to top

National Institutes of Health (part of HHS)

The 18 percent cut would affect the billions of dollars NIH gives out to researchers around the globe, as well as studies at its sprawling Bethesda, Md., campus.

Eliminates the Fogarty International Center, which builds partnerships between U.S. and foreign health research institutions

2017 budget

$31.7B

2018 proposal

$25.9B

Decreased $5.8B (-18% change)

Back to top

Department of Homeland Security

The proposal would increase funding to DHS by 7 percent. This money primarily goes toward big boosts in spending on border and immigration enforcement — for a border wall, for 500 new Border Patrol agents, and 1,000 new Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents.

Cuts $667 million from grant programs to state and local agencies, including pre-disaster mitigation grants and counterterrorism funding

Raises the TSA Passenger Security Fee, currently $5.60 for a passenger flying out of a U.S. airport

2017 budget

$41.3B

2018 proposal

$44.1B

Increased $2.8B (+7% change)

Back to top

Department of Housing and Urban Development

The 13 percent cut in funding for HUD will put tremendous strain on housing authorities across the country, which manage public housing and rely heavily on federal funding.

Eliminates the $3 billion Community Development Block Grant program

Eliminates the HOME Investment Partnerships Program, the Choice Neighborhoods program and the Self-help Homeownership Opportunity Program

Eliminates the $35 million of funding for Section 4 Community Development and Affordable Housing

Raises funding for lead-hazard reduction from $110 million to $130 million

2017 budget

$46.9B

2018 proposal

$40.7B

Decreased $6.2B (-13% change)

Back to top

Interior Department

Under the Trump administration proposal, the Interior Department faces a 12 percent cut. That could strain everyday maintenance of national parks and historic sites, as well as enforcement of activity such as illegal wildlife trafficking at the nation's borders.

Eliminates funding for the 49 National Heritage Areas

Decreases funding for land acquisition by $120 million

Wildfire suppression funding is likely to see a marginal increase

2017 budget

$13.2B

2018 proposal

$11.6B

Decreased $1.6B (-12% change)

Back to top

Justice Department

The budget proposal boosts the DOJ’s tough-on-crime and anti-immigration efforts — putting money toward targeting criminal organizations and drug traffickers, and hiring immigration judges, border enforcement prosecutors and additional deputy U.S. marshals. The DOJ budget’s overall 4 percent decrease appears to come from a reduction in federal prison construction because of a reduced prison population and reducing spending on mostly unnamed “outdated” programs.

Cuts funding to reimburse state and local governments for costs of incarcerating certain undocumented immigrants

Cuts almost $1 billion of funding for federal prison construction

Adds $249 million of funding for the FBI, largely aimed at counterterrorism, cyber threats, more timely firearms purchase background checks and more crime data

Adds $80 million to adjudicate immigrant removal proceedings and hire more attorneys

2017 budget

$28.8B

2018 proposal

$27.7B

Decreased $1.1B (-4% change)

Back to top

Labor Department

The 21 percent proposed cut in the Labor Department reduces funding for job training programs that benefit seniors and disadvantaged youth. The proposal would also shift funding responsibility to states for certain job placement programs.

Eliminates the Senior Community Service Employment Program, which helps low-income seniors find work

Closes poor-performing centers for Job Corps, a job-training program for disadvantaged youth

Eliminates grants that help nonprofit groups and public agencies pay for safety and health training

Expands efforts to reduce improper payments made to people receiving unemployment benefits

2017 budget

$12.2B

2018 proposal

$9.6B

Decreased $2.6B (-21% change)

Back to top

State Department, USAID and Treasury International Program

The 29 percent proposed cut to the State Department refocuses economic and development aid to countries of the greatest strategic importance to the U.S., and it shifts some foreign military aid from grants to loans. It also requires State and USAID to reorganize and consolidate.

Eliminates climate-change prevention programs, including pledged payments to U.N. climate-change programs

Reduces funding for U.N. peacekeeping

Reduces funding for development banks such as the World Bank

Reduces most cultural-exchange programs, but keeps the Fulbright Program

2017 budget

$38.0B

2018 proposal

$27.1B

Decreased $10.9B (-29% change)

Back to top

Transportation Department

The Transportation Department's budget would shrink by 13 percent. The spending plan would move what has been a core government function — air traffic control — outside of government hands, and push responsibility for many transit and other projects to localities.

Shifts air traffic control outside the government

Eliminates funding for many new transit projects and support for long-distance Amtrak trains

Eliminates $175 million in subsidies for commercial flights to rural airports

Cuts $499 million from the TIGER grant program, which has funded dozens of road, transit and other projects

2017 budget

$18.6B

2018 proposal

$16.2B

Decreased $2.4B (-13% change)

Back to top

Treasury Department

The Treasury's budget would shrink by 4 percent, with other funds reallocated toward the department's security missions: preventing hacking, seizing terrorists' bank accounts and enforcing sanctions on foreign adversaries.

Reduces funding for the Internal Revenue Service by $239 million

Eliminates grants for Community Development Financial Institutions, which provide financial services in economically distressed neighborhoods

2017 budget

$12.6B

2018 proposal

$12.1B

Decreased $0.5B (-4% change)

Back to top

Department of Veterans Affairs

VA would be one of the few departments to see its budget grow, by 6 percent to $78.9 billion. Most of the increase would improve veterans' access to doctors and support services following a scandal in 2014 over patient wait times. The money would also help fill some of the agency's more than 45,000 vacant medical positions. Veterans Choice, a program that gives patients the option to see private doctors outside the VA system, would also expand.

Adds $4.4 billion in new funding to expand health services and modernize VA's benefit claims system and other services

2017 budget

$74.5B

2018 proposal

$78.9B

Increased $4.4B (+6% change)

Back to top

Environmental Protection Agency

Trump's budget begins to dismantle the EPA, shrinking its funding by 31 percent and eliminating a fifth of its workforce. More than 50 programs would be eliminated altogether, including Energy Star; grants that help states and cities fight air pollution; an office focused on environmental justice and cleanup efforts in the Chesapeake Bay and Great Lakes; and infrastructure assistance to Alaskan native villages and along the Mexican border. Funding for drinking water infrastructure would remain intact, but the agency's scientific research would suffer massive cuts.

Eliminates more than 50 programs and 3,200 jobs

Discontinues funding for international climate-change programs

Cuts funding for the Office of Research and Development in half

Cuts funding for the Superfund cleanup program and the Office of Enforcement and Compliance

Prioritizes drinking water and wastewater infrastructure projects.

2017 budget

$8.2B

2018 proposal

$5.7B

Decreased $2.5B (-31% change)

Back to top

NASA

NASA will see only a small cut — about 1 percent of its 2017 budget. But the cuts come almost entirely from Earth-observing and education programs, suggesting that Trump aims to make good on campaign promises to shift NASA's focus away from our planet. The budget also directs NASA to find ways to collaborate with the commercial space industry. It makes no mention of the Journey to Mars, which is likely to add to speculation that Trump wants to shift NASA's focus to the moon.

Cuts $102 million of funding from Earth science, terminating four missions aimed at understanding climate-change

Eliminates the $115 million Office of Education

Cuts $88 million from the Robotic Refueling Mission, which develops techniques to repair satellites

2017 budget

$19.2B

2018 proposal

$19.1B

Decreased $0.1B (-1% change)

Back to top

Small Business Administration

The Trump administration is proposing to cut about 5 percent of the Small Business Administration’s budget. The new plan would eliminate $12 million worth of technical-assistance grants and other programs where the administration thinks the private sector already “provides efficient mechanisms” for small-business development and growth.

Eliminates PRIME technical-assistance grants, Growth Accelerators and Regional Innovation Clusters, saving about $12 million

Cuts $1 million of $46 million of loan guarantees currently available to small-business owners

2017 budget

$0.9B

2018 proposal

$0.8B

Decreased $0.1B (-5% change)

Back to top

Arts and cultural agencies

The Trump administration's proposal calls for eliminating four cultural agencies and their collective $971 million budgets. Most of the funds support nonprofit groups across the country, such as dance companies, radio stations, orchestras and theaters.

Eliminates all $148 million for the National Endowment for the Arts and all $148 million for the National Endowment for the Humanities

Eliminates the $230 million Institute of Museum and Library Services

Eliminates the $445 million for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which supports public television and radio, including PBS and NPR

2017 budget

$1.0B

2018 proposal

$0.0B

Decreased $1.0B (-100% change)

In total, the budget proposes to eliminate funding for these 19 agencies:

  • African Development Foundation
  • Appalachian Regional Commission
  • Chemical Safety Board
  • Corporation for National and Community Service
  • Corporation for Public Broadcasting
  • Delta Regional Authority
  • Denali Commission
  • Institute of Museum and Library Services
  • Inter-American Foundation
  • U.S. Trade and Development Agency
  • Legal Services Corporation
  • National Endowment for the Arts
  • National Endowment for the Humanities
  • Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation
  • Northern Border Regional Commission
  • Overseas Private Investment Corporation
  • U.S. Institute of Peace
  • U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness
  • Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

More stories on the budget: