Here’s how to recognize and treat four common eye conditions.
Difficulty producing the necessary amount or quality of tears to keep eyes lubricated affects almost 20 percent of older adults. “As we age, tear glands naturally stop making tears, and oil glands also slow down, which can cause problems with tear quality,” See says. Older adults may also be more likely to have diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes, that dry eyes. A blocked tear duct can dry eyes as well.
Spot the signs: Eyes may be red and feel dry, burning and gritty, or as if there’s a foreign object in them. You may be light-sensitive or have blurred vision.
Treat it right: You can first try over-the-counter (OTC) preservative-free artificial tears, says ophthalmologist Natasha Herz, clinical spokesperson for the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Also, avoid excess heat, which can dry eyes, and consider using a humidifier in the bedroom in winter.
If symptoms don’t improve in about three weeks, see your eye doctor. Prescription eye drops, such as cyclosporine (Restasis), might help increase tear production. If a tear duct is blocked, your doctor can perform a laser treatment or an outpatient surgical procedure called punctoplasty, says Angie Wen, an ophthalmologist at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai.
The eyelid redness and swelling of blepharitis is more common in people older than 50. Bacteria or allergic skin conditions may be behind this inflammation of the eyelids, but another culprit could be skin mites, which can live in eyelashes.
Spot the signs: Symptoms include eye redness and a gritty feeling; red, swollen, itchy eyelids; and crust on your eyelashes when you wake up, Herz says.
Treat it right: Place an OTC heated eye mask on your eyes for 5 minutes two to four times a day, See says. (Test it on the back of your hand before use, to ensure that you don’t burn your eyelids.)
Each morning, gently clean eyelids and lashes with a mix of warm water and a drop of baby shampoo on a clean washcloth. If you see no improvement after a week or two, your eye doctor can prescribe an antibiotic cream or ointment.
Sties and chalazia
Both are marked by red lumps on the eyelids, but a sty occurs when a hair follicle or small gland on the edge of the eyelid gets infected and a chalazion is caused by oil gland blockage. Older adults may be more susceptible because they may be more likely to experience conditions, such as blepharitis, that can introduce bacteria into the eye, Wen says.
Spot the signs: Chalazia tend to occur only on the upper eyelids; sties can show up on lower eyelids, too. Sties are painful, but chalazia usually are not.
Treat it right: For both, apply dry heat for 5 to 10 minutes, two to three times a day, Wen says. Don’t squeeze or pop, which can cause infection. See an eye doctor if lumps don’t subside after a couple of weeks. A sty may require antibiotics, and a chalazion may need to be drained.
Pinkeye, or conjunctivitis, is usually viral. But allergies, irritants such as chlorine and smoke, or a bacterial infection can be to blame, too. Pinkeye may be a symptom of covid-19, so alert your doctor right away. This is especially important if you also have well-known covid-19 symptoms such as fever, cough and loss of taste and smell.
Spot the signs: Red eyes that may be itchy and painful.
Treat it right: Usually, pinkeye can be treated at home with cold compresses and OTC artificial tears to relieve pain and itching, See says. Because it’s very contagious, don’t share towels, cosmetics or bedding, and wash your hands frequently with soap and water to prevent spread.
It should resolve on its own within one to two weeks. But if it persists beyond that, or if you experience a thick, yellow-green discharge; light sensitivity; or vision trouble, call your eye doctor as soon as possible, See says. The physician can check for bacterial conjunctivitis or a problem such as a corneal ulcer, an open sore on your cornea.
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