The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) said Hayabusa2 will drop an impactor the size of a baseball weighing 4.4 pounds on the asteroid April 5 to collect samples from deep underground that have not been exposed to the sun or space rays.
The mission will require the spacecraft to move quickly to the other side of the asteroid so that it won’t get hit by flying shards from the blast, JAXA project engineer Takanao Saeki said. “It will be very challenging.”
While moving away, Hayabusa2 will leave a camera to capture the outcome. The spacecraft is to wait a few weeks before returning to the area above the crater for observations.
The mission will allow JAXA scientists to analyze details of the crater to determine the history of the asteroid, said Koji Wada, who is in charge of the project.
JAXA projects it will create a crater of up to 32 feet in diameter with a depth of 3.3 feet if the underground structure is soft. A crater created on a rocklike structure would be smaller.
During its February touchdown, Hayabusa2 extended a sampler pipe and shot a pinball-like bullet into the asteroid surface to collect dust and tiny fragments.
JAXA plans to have Hayabusa2 briefly land in the crater, but agency researcher Takashi Kubota said they might prioritize safety for the spacecraft and not do so. If it is successful, it would be the first time for a spacecraft to take materials from underground, Kubota said.
Hayabusa2 is scheduled to leave the asteroid at the end of this year and take surface fragments and underground samples to Earth in late 2020 for analysis.