What caused the Union disaster at Ball’s Bluff?

● Unclear orders.

● Decisions based on incorrect — or not enough — information.

● Inexperienced soldiers. (It was the first battle for these Union men, but the Confederates had fought three months earlier at Bull Run.)

● Big mistakes made by Colonel Edward Baker, who was in charge of Union forces at the battlefield.

● Smart decisions by Confederate General Nathan “Shanks” Evans.

● Not enough boats!