Naim Suleymanoglu at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. (Michael Probst/Associated Press)

Naim Suleymanoglu, a Turkish weightlifter who won three Olympic gold medals and was known as “Pocket Hercules,” died Saturday at an Istanbul hospital. He was 50.

The cause was cirrhosis of the liver. He had received a liver transplant in October, according to Turkey’s official Anadolu news agency.

Mr. Suleymanoglu was considered one of weightlifting’s greatest athletes and earned his nickname for his strength and diminutive size. He won three straight Olympic gold medals for Turkey between 1988 and 1996.

Standing 4 feet 10 inches tall and weighing about 135 pounds, the Bulgarian-born strongman could lift three times his weight.

He came out of retirement to try for a fourth gold at the Sydney Olympics in 2000 but missed all three of his lifts.

“I know only gold,” Mr. Suleymanoglu had said as he returned to competition. “I do not know about silver or bronze.”

He also won seven world and six European championships.

Mr. Suleymanoglu was born to an ethnic Turkish family in Bulgaria, and defected to Turkey in 1986 while training in Australia.

Regarded as a national hero in his adopted country, he captured the hearts of Turks after winning his first gold at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. Whenever he returned home from a tournament, he would be greeted by thousands of fans who would lift him up on their shoulders.

Mr. Suleymanoglu missed the 1984 Games at Los Angeles because of a Soviet-led boycott. Although only 17 at the time, he was the favorite to win the bantamweight gold.

He was an outspoken critic of the Bulgarian government’s treatment of the Turkish minority in his homeland, and was forced by the authorities to change his surname to the more Slavic-sounding Shalamanov.

When the Bulgarian weightlifting team went to a training camp in Melbourne, Australia, in 1986, he slipped away from the group while pretending to visit the restroom at a hotel.

Mr. Suleymanoglu hid in Australia for several days before he went to the Turkish consulate to seek asylum. Eventually the Bulgarians allowed him to switch nationalities and he kissed the airport tarmac on his arrival in Turkey. In 1986 he changed his name to the more Turkic-sounding Suleymanoglu.

He went to the Seoul Olympics as a Turk and twice broke the world record in the snatch competition on his way to winning the gold medal.

He competed unsuccessfully for a seat in Turkish parliamentary elections in 1999 and 2007.