The dishwasher, long the workhorse of the kitchen, is getting quieter and more powerful, energy-efficient and stylish. Part of the 1950s American trophy kitchen, early dishwasher models rattled plates as they chugged through cleaning cycles. Today, dishwashers operate with barely a sound. With some, you can’t even tell they’re washing, even though they’re blasting jets of water at baked-on goop bonded to your cassoulet pan.

What’s new?

Quiet models. Dishwasher manufacturers post decibel levels, ranging from 40 to 65. Usually, the quieter the machine, the higher the price. Dee David, a Falls Church kitchen designer, says European manufacturers such as Asko, Bosch and Miele first offered quieter dishwashing with less water. “My favorite is actually the Miele,” she says.

Most new dishwashers are Energy Star compliant, using less water and electricity. If a machine is more than 10 years old, it might use six to nine gallons more water per load. Now, very efficient models use about two gallons. Using a delayed start and running the machine at night might save money if your utilities have off-peak rates.

Sensors, design.
With newer models, scrape but don’t pre-rinse dishes. Some machines have soil sensors that set off powerful sprays or rack designs that maximize performance, says Jill Notini, vice president at the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. “People’s natural inclination is to want to help, but you should just let the machine do its job.”

Operating tips
Loading. Proper loading is the key to successful dishwasher operation. Unless you have a recent model with a deep top rack (tall tub design) that accommodates plates, place all plates on the bottom facing the center. Load cutlery compartments with some flatware handles up and some down; otherwise you risk the dreaded “nesting” and they won’t all come out clean. Put knives in the flatware bin with points facing down.

Rinse aids. These assure optimum sparkle, industry experts say, by allowing water to sheet off dishes rather than dry in droplets. It is particularly helpful if you are using a heat-free drying cycle to conserve energy.

Saving energy.
Run the dishwasher only when full, and use only the amount of detergent recommended by the manufacturer. Consider skipping the heated drying cycle in favor of air dry.

See if your dishwasher’s maker recommends a specific detergent: powder, liquid gel, tablets or gel packs. Powder should be stored in a cool, dry place, not under the sink where warmth and moisture can cause it to clump, according to the American Cleaning Institute.

low, middle, high

Mark Keeney, manager of the Annapolis
appliance store, recommends these models at three price levels:

Whirlpool DU1030 ($400-$500)

3 Sanitary rinse eliminates 99.9 percent
of germs, heats water to 178 degrees.

3 Nylon racks won’t crack and rust.

Bosch SHE4AP ($600-$700)

3 Plastics can be placed anywhere in the dishwasher without melting.

3 Half-load option.

3 53 decibels (very quiet).

3 2.8 gallons of water used per load.

3 Child-lock feature prevents opening during cycle.

KitchenAid KUDE40FX ($1,200-$1,300)

3 Clean styling with buttons on the upper interior of the door.

3 46 decibels (virtually silent).

3 ProScrub setting focuses multiple high-pressure jets on an area for hard-to-scrub pots and pans.

Shop smart

There are more than two dozen brands of dishwashers on the market, and hundreds of models, in white, black and stainless. A few still come in bisque. Prices range from about $200 to more than $2,000. Keeney suggests asking yourself these questions when shopping:

1How big a concern is noise for you? Do you run the dishwasher while entertaining? (Then study decibel levels.)

2Do you put your baked-on lasagna or potatoes au gratin pans directly in the machine? (Look for a designated spot on the bottom rack for dirty pans.)

3Are you passionate about design or aesthetics? (Seek out sleek models with contoured handles and hidden control buttons on the top edge of the door.)

6Tell us This is the first in a monthly series on household appliances. Tell us what machines you want to know more about by e-mailing with “appliance” in the subject line. Next month: toasters.