Former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin was convicted of murdering George Floyd on Tuesday, the conclusion of a closely watched trial that came nearly a year after Floyd’s killing catalyzed an international protest movement for racial justice.

After just over 10 hours of deliberation, a jury returned guilty verdicts on all three counts: second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter. Chauvin faces up to 40 years in prison and will await his sentencing, in eight weeks, from jail.

“It’s not enough. We can’t stop here,” President Biden said in remarks at the White House after the conviction, a rare example of punishment after a police killing.

Here’s what you need to know:

How bystanders changed the story of Floyd’s death

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As Americans celebrated the guilty verdict for former police officer Derek Chauvin on Tuesday, the jury’s decision also prompted poignant reflections on how different the story of Floyd’s death would have been had bystanders not intervened and filmed the interaction.

On May 25, 2020, a police report titled “Man Dies After Medical Incident During Police Interaction,” stated that the Minneapolis Police Department responded to a report of a forgery in progress.

The roughly 200-word statement said a male suspect in his 40s who appeared “under the influence” resisted orders to step from his car.

“Officers were able to get the suspect into handcuffs and noted he appeared to be suffering medical distress,” the statement said. “Officers called for an ambulance. He was transported to Hennepin County Medical Center by ambulance where he died a short time later.”

But it was only through videos filmed by concerned bystanders that the public first learned that Chauvin had pinned Floyd to the ground pressing his knee on his neck for more than nine minutes, despite his continuous cries for help, gasping for air and claiming that he could not breathe.

The statement also omitted details of how those same witnesses desperately pleaded the police to relent.

On Tuesday, some people took to social media to express outrage about how similar incidents of police brutality are often reported, and pointed at the crucial role those bystanders played on the entire case.

“Can we all sing a praise song for Darnella Frazier who had the presence of mind to film that video that made such a difference in this case and now must live with the memories that will walk alongside her for the rest of her years,” Michele Norris wrote on Twitter.

“How many similar reports have covered up similar murders?” a man wrote on Twitter.

“I think if we ever found out the answer to that it would be received with shock, mourning, disbelief, and despair,” another one responded.

Minneapolis police chief calls for peace after verdict

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Hours after the jury rendered its verdict, Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo pleaded for calm as crowds came into the streets to celebrate the decision.

Arradondo, who testified for the prosecution during the trial that Chauvin’s use of force did not align with his police training, said in a statement Tuesday evening that he respected the results of the case. He urged people to act peacefully in the days to come, as protesters have continued to express concerns about police use of force.

“We fully respect and support people’s lawful exercise of their first amendment rights,” he wrote. “We ask for people to be peaceful and lawful in their actions.”

Arradondo also thanked police officers for doing their jobs during unrest following the troubling video of Floyd’s death. He added that officers would continue to “strive to do our very best to earn your trust.”

“The past year has been difficult and challenging, yet they have continued to show up and serve our community with the respect and dignity they deserve,” he wrote.

Arradondo’s testimony in Chauvin’s case was highly anticipated after he had denounced the use of force in the aftermath of Floyd’s death, calling it “murder.”

“What happened to Mr. Floyd was murder,” he said in June 2020. “Chauvin had his knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck for over seven minutes, and for those last minutes he knew that Floyd was nonresponsive.”

Lateshia Beachum contributed to this report.

World reacts to guilty verdict in death of George Floyd

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Foreign leaders and media outlets began to react Tuesday evening to Chauvin’s conviction in a case that sparked an international reckoning and has grasped the attention of observers around the world.

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson tweeted Tuesday in favor of the conviction.

"I was appalled by the death of George Floyd and welcome this verdict,” he wrote.

London Mayor Sadiq Khan tweeted that he was thinking of Floyd’s loved ones. “I welcome the verdict but by itself this won’t heal the pain of their loss, which reverberated around the world,” he wrote. “The guilty verdict must be the beginning of real change - not the end.”

David Lammy, a Labour lawmaker in Britain, tweeted: "No judgement can ever make up for murder, but it means everything that justice has been served tonight for George Floyd. Let this send a clear message both in the USA and across the world: #BlackLivesMatter.”

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said in an interview on Real Talk Ryan Jespersen on Tuesday evening that “it is good news that we saw the verdict come through where people hoped it would."

“But it still underlines that there’s an awful lot of work to do,” he said.

Jagmeet Singh, leader of Canada’s New Democratic Party, wrote on Twitter that a single verdict “won’t eradicate the systemic racism embedded within our institutions. But, in the memory of George Floyd, it is one small step in the right direction.”

Foreign news outlets featured prominent coverage of the verdict on their websites, with Australian Broadcasting Corp. running live coverage and French newspaper Le Monde featuring its news story at the top of its website.

In New York, protesters’ rhetoric veered into talk of ‘revolution’ and ‘insurrection’

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Along and near Flatbush Avenue, people came out of their buildings to witness Brooklyn’s post-verdict march that originated at the Barclays Center shortly after 7 p.m.

Members of the community engaged — cheering and filming the event from their windows and from outdoor cafes. A toddler on her father’s shoulders took a cue from her parents and stumbled as she tried to pronounce “Black lives matter.”

Horns honked, passersby cheered, and at one point, a man leaned out from his fourth-story window and banged on a pan.

Protesters’ rhetoric veered into talk of “revolution” and “insurrection.” There were also demands to “shut every precinct down.”

“Fire to the gentrifier,” one chant went.

Marchers at times aimed their fury at New York police officers on foot who were assigned to follow the group and to news media members covering the event.

One woman referred to police as “piggies” and demanded they remain on the sidewalk — away from the marchers who clogged the street and blocked traffic — along with the journalists present who she said were “piggies, too.”

Perspective: By bearing witness — and hitting ‘record’ — 17-year-old Darnella Frazier may have changed the world

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Her motivations were simple enough. You could even call them pure.

“It wasn’t right,” said Darnella Frazier, who was 17 last year when she saw George Floyd pinned under a Minneapolis police officer’s knee. She said that to the jury last month as she testified in the murder trial of that former officer, Derek Chauvin.

No, Darnella, it wasn’t right, a Hennepin County jury agreed on Tuesday, finding Chauvin guilty of second- and third-degree murder as well as second-degree manslaughter.

After so many previous instances in which police officers were acquitted of what looked to many people like murder, this time was different. And it was different, in some significant portion, because of a teenager’s sense of right and wrong.

Call it a moral core.

Justice Dept. investigation into Floyd’s death ‘ongoing,’ attorney general says

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Attorney General Merrick Garland said Tuesday that the U.S. Justice Department’s investigation into Floyd’s death remains “ongoing,” suggesting it is still possible that Chauvin and others could face federal civil rights charges.

In a statement, Garland said the jury in Chauvin’s trial on state charges had “fulfilled its civic duty” and noted, “While the state’s prosecution was successful, I know that nothing can fill the void that the loved ones of George Floyd have felt since his death.”

“The Justice Department has previously announced a federal civil rights investigation into the death of George Floyd,” Garland said in the statement. “This investigation is ongoing.”

The Justice Department often investigates incidents in which police officers kill those in their custody as possible civil rights violations, though state manslaughter, murder or assault charges are generally easier to prove.

State charges, though, don’t preclude the Justice Department from pursuing its own criminal probe, which can potentially result in more severe penalties.

‘This work is long overdue,’ Harris says while urging passage of police reform bill

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Vice President Harris on April 20 said “a measure of justice isn’t the same as equal justice,” following the guilty verdict of Derek Chauvin. (The Washington Post)

Speaking with President Biden after Chauvin’s conviction Tuesday, Vice President Harris urged senators to pass the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act, saying “this work is long overdue” and that racial injustice is “a problem for every American.”

Harris introduced the police reform measure with colleagues last year as a senator. It’s not “a panacea for every problem,” she acknowledged, but “a start.”

“Black Americans and Black men in particular have been treated throughout the course of our history as less than human,” said Harris, the first Black person, as well as woman and Asian American, to serve as vice president. “Black men are fathers and brothers and sons and uncles and grandfathers and friends and neighbors.”

“Their lives must be valued in our education system, in our health-care system, in our housing system, in our economic system, in our criminal justice system, in our nation,” she continued. “Full stop.”

Floyd’s murder, documented in viral video, has brought new light to these issues, Harris said: “Because of smartphones, so many Americans have now seen the racial injustice that Black Americans have known for generations.”

True justice for Floyd will only come with systemic change, Minn. Gov. Tim Walz says

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Minnesota Gov. Tim Walz said Tuesday that while he commended the prosecutors’ work and the jury’s decision to convict Chauvin, true justice for Floyd will come only though “real systemic change.”

“Here in Minnesota our work just begins,” Walz (D) said at a news conference after the verdict. “This is the floor not the ceiling of where we need to get to,” he added, calling for “real reforms” in policing and criminal justice.

Walz highlighted the racial inequities in health, homeownership and education in Minnesota, which he said must be addressed now, adding, “This is our moment.”

Walz urged state officials and legislators to burn political capital needed to make systemic changes, to “honor” those who have fought for racial equality.

Biden says country must confront systemic racism after Chauvin conviction

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President Biden urged Americans not to “look away, thinking our work is done” in the wake of Chauvin’s murder conviction, saying the country must confront systemic racism.

The battle for the soul of this nation has been a constant push and pull for more than 240 years, a tug of war between the American ideal that we’re all created equal and the harsh reality that racism has long torn us apart,” he said.

He urged people not to “look away thinking our work is done.”

We have to look as we did for those nine minutes and 29 seconds,” the president said, referencing the amount of time that Chauvin knelt on Floyd’s neck. “We have to listen.” He called for more work to “deliver real change and reform.”

This takes acknowledging and confronting — head on — systemic racism, and the racial disparities that exist in policing and our criminal justice system more broadly,” Biden said.

State and local governments and law enforcement have to “step up,” he said, “but so does the federal government.” He praised his attorney general, Merrick Garland, and other Justice Department picks as “committed to restoring trust between law enforcement and the community,” appealing to the Senate to confirm Vanita Gupta for associate attorney general and Kristen Clarke as head of the Justice Department’s civil rights division.

He also urged “peaceful expression,” denouncing “agitators and extremists who have no interest in social justice.”

Biden ended his speech by heralding a turning point.

“This can be a moment of significant change,” he said.

In nationwide address, Biden speaks about Floyd killing: ‘It was a murder in the full light of day’

11:54 p.m.
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President Biden addressed the nation on April 20 after the jury in the Derek Chauvin trial returned a guilty verdict on all charges. (The Washington Post)

Hours after a Minneapolis jury found Chauvin guilty on all charges, Biden praised the verdict that he called “a giant step forward” while acknowledging that “basic accountability” for Black Americans killed by police is “too rare.”

In the nationwide address, Biden called systemic racism “a stain on the nation’s soul” and urged lawmakers to move forward with reforms of policing and accountability. He called on the Senate to pass the George Floyd Justice and Policing Act, which Harris helped write last year and passed the House last month.

“This can be a moment of significant change,” Biden said.

The president acknowledged the trauma that Americans, especially Black Americans, had endured watching the video of Floyd’s murder and the trial of Chauvin.

“It was a murder in the full light of day, and it ripped the blinders off for the whole world to see,” Biden said of the widely shared video of Floyd’s death.

Saying that he had spoken with Floyd’s family and Minnesota Gov. Tim Walz earlier in the day, Biden said that while the verdict “does not bring back George,” his family was working to ensure his legacy was more than “just about his death.”

Biden’s remarks Tuesday evening marks one of a few instances he’s publicly weighed in about the case. Although Biden had reserved comment during the weeks-long trial, he said after the jury started deliberating that he prayed for “the right verdict.”

Darnella Frazier, teen who filmed Floyd’s arrest, speaks out after verdict

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The teenager who captured the world’s attention with her cellphone footage of Floyd’s arrest last year said she sobbed Tuesday after jurors returned a guilty verdict for Chauvin.

“I just cried so hard,” 18-year-old Darnella Frazier wrote on Facebook. “This last hour my heart was beating so fast, I was so anxious, anxiety bussing through the roof. But to know GUILTY ON ALL 3 CHARGES !!! THANK YOU GOD THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU.”

“George Floyd we did it!!” she wrote, ending her post with: “justice has been served.”

Called to testify in Chauvin’s trial, Frazier told the court that she is haunted by Floyd’s killing. She was 17 when she filmed Chauvin kneeling on Floyd’s neck outside Cup Foods, where she had accompanied her younger cousin to purchase a snack.

“It’s been nights I stayed up apologizing and apologized to George Floyd for not doing more,” she told jurors.

On Tuesday, many said Frazier had made the guilty verdict possible.

Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison (D) at a news conference alluded to her and other bystanders-turned-documentarians, thanking “brave young women, teenagers, who pressed record on their cellphones.”

“They performed simple yet profound acts of courage,” Ellison said, praising these witnesses’ instincts to film as well as their willingness to testify.

“Darnella Frazier demonstrated courage and perseverance in filming what she knew was wrong,” tweeted Pete Souza, who served as White House photographer during the Obama administration. “This verdict does not happen without her. Thank you Darnella; you have changed our country forever.”

In D.C. the guilty verdict in Chauvin trial is met with cheers, tears and relief

A deep sense of relief rippled across the nation’s capital shortly after 5 p.m. Tuesday as the guilty verdicts in the Derek Chauvin murder trial were announced in a Minnesota courtroom. George Floyd died 1,100 miles from Washington, but his gruesome execution beneath the former Minneapolis officer’s knee had loomed over this city for nearly a year.

Thousands of protesters, furious over the police’s mistreatment of another Black man, demonstrated throughout last summer, sometimes peacefully and other times amid burning buildings and shattered glass. The District, like much of the country, braced for another explosion of anger if the jury let Chauvin walk free. But they didn’t.

In Columbia Heights and on H Street, people cheered. At Black Lives Matter Plaza — which didn’t exist before Floyd took his last breath — they cried.

‘What a day to be a Floyd, ’ says brother of George Floyd

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Terrence Floyd spoke about his brother in Minneapolis on April 20 following the guilty verdict in trial of former police officer Derek Chauvin. (Reuters)

Terrence Floyd, the brother of George Floyd, spoke Tuesday evening and delivered an emotional statement in which he expressed his gratitude for all of the “support and prayers and love” shown for the Floyd family.

He also thanked all those who have long fought for social justice and racial equality, including the Rev. Jesse Jackson, saying, “Their fight was not in vain.”

At a news conference after the jury’s guilty verdict, Floyd underlined how significant Tuesday’s resolution was for his family and to history.

“I will miss him, but now I know he’s in history,” Terrence Floyd said. “What a day to be a Floyd, man.”

Floyd family chants ‘Say his name,’ says he should still be alive

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Members of George Floyd’s family and their attorneys entered a hotel ballroom shortly after the verdict was read with their fists in the air.

“Say his name: George Floyd,” they chanted as they approached a microphone to address reporters.

The group heralded Chauvin’s murder conviction as a moment when the United States finally came close to living up to its ideal that all men are created equal. Still, civil rights leader the Rev. Al Sharpton acknowledged that the verdict would not bring Floyd back to life.

“We don’t find pleasure in this,” he said. “We don’t celebrate a man going to jail. We would rather George be alive.”

As the attorneys spoke, Floyd’s 7-year-old daughter Gianna Floyd climbed into a relative’s arms.

Floyd should be “alive somewhere, playing with Gianna on a playground,” Antonio Romanucci, one of the family’s attorneys, said as he nodded toward the girl.

The attorneys emphasized that they and Floyd’s family still want major changes to American policing, including passage of the federal George Floyd Justice in Policing Act, which seeks to make it easier to hold law enforcement accountable for misconduct.

They recited the names of other Black Americans injured or killed by police, including Breonna Taylor and Daunte Wright.

Philonise Floyd, George Floyd’s brother, recounted that seemingly everyone in the United States was watching the video of his brother’s death, over and over, like a “motion picture.”

“Justice for George means freedom for all,” Philonise Floyd said.

Then he turned around, straight into a family member’s arms.