“Medication, depression, changes in taste and smell, and a drop in activity level can all cause a decline in appetite,” says Lauri Wright, chair of the department of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville.
When you eat less at one sitting, it can be difficult to get the energy, vitamins and minerals needed from three meals alone.
“Snacking — or eating six minimeals a day instead of only three — can fill in the gaps,” Wright says.
In a study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, snacks contributed significantly to the overall intake of many important nutrients, supplying, for example, 18 percent of the calcium and magnesium, 16 percent of the vitamin E and potassium, and 15 percent of the vitamin C older adults took in each day.
In addition, the amounts of these nutrients and others increased as the frequency of snacking increased. Other research shows that snacking also boosts calorie and protein intake. Use these tips to help you snack right.
Know your nutrients
A diet rich in vitamins and other nutrients can help prevent disease and support everything from your bones to your heart. Experts suggest using snacktime to increase your intake of the following, which may be lacking in an older person’s diet:
Vitamin B12. Because blood cells need this nutrient, a deficiency can result in anemia. Older people are especially at risk. “The acidity in the stomach decreases with age, making it harder for the body to absorb vitamin B12,” Wright says. Fortified cereals, yogurt, eggs and lean meat are high in vitamin B12.
Vitamin D. Crucial for bone health, your body needs sunlight to make this nutrient, and older people tend to spend less time outdoors. “It also becomes harder for the body to synthesize and absorb vitamin D as you age,” says Erin Morse, the chief clinical dietitian at UCLA Health’s department of nutrition. Salmon is a vitamin D powerhouse, and milk yogurt, and eggs are also good sources.
Fiber. “Decreased activity, dehydration, and certain medications can lead to constipation,” Morse says. “Fiber helps prevent this.” In addition, soluble fiber can help lower cholesterol levels. Fruits and vegetables, whole grains and whole-grain bread and cereal, nuts, and beans are all rich in fiber. Soluble fiber is found in apples, beans and oats, among other foods.
Protein. Muscle mass naturally declines with age, making you more prone to falls and decreasing your ability to perform daily activities. Protein is crucial for preserving it. Wright suggests upping your protein intake and spreading it out. “Your body regenerates muscle throughout the day, and it needs protein to do that,” Wright says. “Instead of only having protein at one meal, eat a serving at least three times a day.” Power picks: lean meat, cheese, yogurt, beans and eggs.
Potassium. This mineral plays an important role in heart and kidney functioning. It’s abundant in bananas, prunes, beans, sweet and white potatoes, yogurt, and fish.
Follow this formula
To get all the nutrients your body needs, snack on a variety of foods — and go for a combination of protein and carbohydrates at every snack.
“Your body burns carbohydrates more quickly,” Wright says. “Protein provides a slower, more sustained energy release to help you feel full longer.”
And don’t shy away from fat! Healthy fats — such as avocado, hummus, nuts and seeds, and olive oil — in snacks will boost satiety. Plus, fat is key for the absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K.
Prep for snack attacks
Though meals are usually planned in advance, a majority of snacks aren’t, a 2014 study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition found. That spontaneity can lead you to go for ease rather than nutrition.
“People think of snacks as prepackaged items, like chips,” Morse says. “We need to switch the mind-set and consider nourishing foods we prepare.”
But that doesn’t mean you need to whip up complicated recipes or nosh on unfamiliar ingredients. Proof? These expert-approved, healthful, easy options:
Banana and peanut butter. It’s the ideal combination of protein, carbs and healthy fat — plus potassium.
Plain yogurt, whole-grain cereal and berries. This tasty parfait layers up fiber, protein, calcium and potassium.
Oatmeal, chia seeds and chopped apple. Mix protein- and nutrient-packed seeds into hot cereal for a flavorful, fiber-filled minimeal. The apple adds potassium plus a hit of natural sweetness.
Turkey and avocado on a slice of whole-wheat bread. Mini sandwiches can be a perfect portable snack.
Lentil soup. Try snacking on smaller portions of your favorite healthful meals, such as bean soups. (Choose lower-sodium if you opt for a canned variety.)
Baked sweet potato with olive oil and cinnamon. Keep a few whole baked tubers in the fridge so that you can easily heat and eat when hunger strikes.
Whole-grain crackers with hummus. Hummus has protein and healthy fats, and the crackers supply some fiber.
Conquer that craving
The next time you have a hankering for something high in fat or sugar, try one of these swaps from Wesley Delbridge, a spokesman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Instead of: Potato chips
Try: Air-popped popcorn and a handful of nuts
Why: You still get a satisfying crunch and a little salt, and corn, a whole grain, provides fiber. Plus the nuts contain protein and healthy fat.
Instead of: A doughnut
Try: One slice of whole-wheat toast with 1 tablespoon of nut butter and sliced strawberries
Why: Whole grains provide fiber; almond butter has protein and healthy fat; and berries add sweetness with fewer sugars than jam.
Instead of: Ice cream
Try: A smoothie
Why: Blend milk, nonfat plain Greek yogurt, berries (fresh or frozen), a banana and a few ice cubes. The result: a sweet, frosty treat that’s high in protein and fiber with no added sugars.
Instead of: A candy bar
Try: Walnuts and 70 percent cacao dark chocolate
Why: Dark chocolate is lower in sugars than the milk variety; pairing it with walnuts (which contain healthy omega-3 fats) makes this nutritionist-approved.
Instead of: Cookies and milk
Try: Whole-grain cereal and milk
Why: Many cereals are fortified with nutrients such as iron and B vitamins, and are lower in sugars than cookies.
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