A close-up view of a snakehead’s toothy mouth. Handle with care! (Kevin Ambrose)

It’s been 13 years since the snakehead, a.k.a. the frankenfish, was first found in the Potomac River. Initial predictions were dire, but during recent years it’s become clear that the snakehead is just another fish in the river.

The snakehead has not destroyed the Potomac River’s ecosystem as first predicted, and it appears that it’s coexisting with the other game fish in the river just fine. According to John Odenkirk, Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) biologist, the bass population in the Potomac River is better now than in recent years.

I interviewed Odenkirk regarding snakeheads in the Potomac River, and his interview, lightly edited, is below:


The author holds up a snakehead caught in the tidal Potomac River north of Colonial Beach. (Terry Sheppard)

KA: Which section of the Potomac River has the densest population of snakeheads?

JO: The areas further downstream (away from D.C.), in newer colonized areas (with suitable habitat), generally will have higher numbers — these will usually be found in the back of tributary arms between Occoquan and Colonial Beach within both Maryland and Virginia. Areas closer to D.C. with higher numbers in Virginia are Aquia Creek (Stafford Co.) and the Occoquan River.

KA: During the past few years, has the population of snakeheads increased, decreased, or remained the same in the Potomac River? Has increased fishing pressure helped to reduce the snakehead population?

JO: Snakehead abundance increased dramatically after colonization, but trends suggest that increases in abundance may have slowed. Population estimates for Little Hunting Creek (tidal tributary of the Potomac River) declined each year from 2013 to 2015, supporting the assertion that northern snakehead density increases have slowed or that density has stabilized in some creeks.

In the areas where they have been longest (e.g., around Mount Vernon), numbers seem to be declining in most Virginia creeks. I am fairly certain that a high level of exploitation (both commercial and recreational), which encompasses the huge increase in bow fishing, due to this fish, has helped suppress numbers.


Snakehead and chips. It makes for a delicious meal! (Kevin Ambrose)

KA: During the past few years, has the population of game fish, such as bass and walleye, increased, decreased, or remained the same in sections of the Potomac River which have snakeheads?

JO: We never see walleye in the Virginia portion of the tidal Potomac. This year, the largemouth bass population looks fantastic. On balance, the bass fishery has been better in the past five or six years than longer ago (during early phase of snakehead expansion). In short, it appears both populations are functioning completely independently of one another with no competition (plenty of forage to support both at current levels).

KA: Snakeheads are fun to catch and are also delicious to eat. Is there a chance they will ever get reclassified as a game fish, with trophy citations awarded?

JO: Maybe someday. Probably citations before game fish status, if it happens.

KA: What is the largest or heaviest snakehead documented to have been harvested in the Potomac River?

JO: We don’t track those numbers officially, but it’s in the 17- to 18-pound range.


Snakehead lure — a ChatterBait. The fish hits top water lures. (Kevin Ambrose)

KA: Do snakeheads pose more of a risk to the ecosystem of lakes, such as Burke Lake and Lake Brittle, than to the ecosystem of a large river, such as the Potomac?

JO: We hope not and should have an answer in a few years, as folks have illegally stocked them in both these VDGIF-owned lakes. We have copious historical data from which to gauge community response. Both lakes are productive (fertile) systems. One concern some folks have is with illegal introductions in less productive systems.

KA: When were snakeheads first found in the Potomac River?

JO: The fish was first found in the Potomac River in May 2004.


Snakehead bites for breakfast. It’s wonderful with bacon, eggs and sausage. (Kevin Ambrose)