President-elect Donald Trump has picked Rex Tillerson as his nominee for secretary of state. Here's what you need to know about Tillerson. (Thomas Johnson,Victoria Walker,Danielle Kunitz/The Washington Post)

Rex Tillerson won confirmation Wednesday to become secretary of state, placing a longtime oil company executive at the helm of what President Trump has promised will be an “America first” foreign policy.

The final vote was 56 to 43, with four members of the Democratic caucus in favor of confirmation: Sens. Heidi Heitkamp (D-N.D.), Angus King (I-Maine), Joe Manchin III (D-W.Va.) and Mark R. Warner (D-Va.).

Later Wednesday, Tillerson was sworn in by Vice President Pence at the White House, and congratulated by Trump.
"It’s time to bring a clear-eyed focus to foreign policy, to take a fresh look at the world around us, and to seek new solutions grounded through very ancient truths,” Trump said.

Interim Democratic National Committee chairwoman Donna Brazile castigated the choice of a businessman with close ties to Russia, especially given U.S. intelligence findings that Russia meddled in and attempted to influence the presidential election.

“Multiple intelligence agencies still have ongoing investigations looking into the major unanswered questions surrounding the extent of the relationship between Russia and the Trump campaign,” Brazile said. “Now, a man whose most prominent foreign policy accolade is the Russian Order of Friendship, awarded to him by Vladimir Putin himself, has been put in charge of American foreign policy.”

Human rights groups, environmental organizations and other interest groups also decried the choice, but Republicans celebrated.

“We need a secretary of state who can restore America's global leadership in the world and effectively advocate for our interests,” said Sen. Shelley Moore Capito (R-W.Va.). “Given his broad experience, I’m confident that Rex Tillerson is the right person to serve as our nation’s top diplomat and was pleased to vote for his confirmation today.”

The recently retired ExxonMobil chief executive takes office amid a Trump administration debut marked by big swings away from the national security and foreign policies in place under the Obama administration. The State Department he now heads has a central role in refugee resettlement and other immigration and travel-related policies that are at issue in a White House order suspending the admission of refugees and restricting entry for citizens from several majority-Muslim nations.

One of his chief outside backers, former defense secretary Robert M. Gates, said Sunday that the immigration order is likely to make Tillerson's job as chief diplomat harder. Gates, a Republican who recommended Tillerson to Trump as a dark-horse candidate, is among a long bipartisan list of foreign-policy experts who have argued that actions that appear to target Muslims play into the hands of extremists who claim that the United States is at war with Islam.

Tillerson’s confirmation was not in doubt, despite Democratic opposition. The vote followed announcements of support from three Republicans who had earlier expressed reservations about his nomination.

The Senate Foreign Relations Committee had approved Tillerson along party lines, a show of Republican unity that masked discomfort among some conservatives over Trump’s approach to Russia and human rights issues.

Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.), who had questioned Tillerson more aggressively than many Democrats during a contentious day-long Jan. 11 confirmation hearing, had said last week that he would back Tillerson despite lingering doubts on human rights and other grounds.

“Given the uncertainty that exists both at home and abroad about the direction of our foreign policy, it would be against our national interests to have this confirmation unnecessarily delayed or embroiled in controversy,” Rubio said in a lengthy statement posted on Facebook. “Therefore, despite my reservations, I will support Mr. Tillerson’s nomination in committee and in the full Senate.”

Rubio noted that he remains troubled that Tillerson refused to say that Putin, the Russian president, had committed war crimes. Democrats pointed to Tillerson’s years-long relationship with Putin, his answers on climate change and other positions in voting against him.

Republican opposition was melting away even before Rubio's announcement. Sens. John McCain (R-Ariz.) and Lindsey O. Graham (R-S.C.) had announced their support for Tillerson before the committee voted. Like Rubio, McCain and Graham had voiced worries about Tillerson’s ties to Russia.

Manchin said he based his support in part on having known Tillerson from their shared involvement with the Boy Scouts of America. “Rex Tillerson’s extensive career will bring a unique perspective to the State Department, and I believe he will provide wise counsel and objective advice to the president on our nation’s foreign policy,” Manchin said in a statement announcing his intention to vote in favor.

Manchin also praised Tillerson’s decision to divest all of his ExxonMobil stock and recuse himself at least temporarily from any State Department action involving the company.

Donald Trump nominations list – New White House administration

The 64-year-old Texan has no prior government experience and no formal background in foreign policy or diplomacy. His admirers, however, say he has a vast knowledge of world affairs and geopolitics born of years of international energy exploration and production.

Tillerson set out a mostly mainstream Republican vision of foreign policy at his confirmation hearing and assured senators he would not be overly friendly with Russia or Middle Eastern nations where his company, the world’s largest oil firm, has done business. He has said little about his personal goals for diplomacy, and it is not clear whether he will have a signature issue as his predecessors have, such as John F. Kerry with climate change or Hillary Clinton, who focused on helping women and girls.

The department he heads was in unusual turmoil before the executive order was announced Friday. A large number of senior Foreign Service officers resigned or were nudged out of top positions last week, signaling an intent by the Trump administration to install many new faces. There are vacancies at the top of major department offices, including those responsible for the Middle East and Europe.

Gates, who served as defense secretary under Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama and as director of the CIA under President George H.W. Bush, said he expects a number of countries will have a “negative reaction” to Trump’s order. He said the order, paired with Obama’s drawdown of troops in Iraq and Afghanistan and Trump’s “America first” platform, could signal that the United States is backing away from global commitments.

“I would say that the actions and the rhetoric of the new president simply continue that drumbeat of giving the impression around the world that the United States is pulling back,” Gates said Sunday on ABC’s “This Week.” “This creates, whether we want it or not, a vacuum, and that vacuum will not be filled by benign forces. ”

Among the top issues the new secretary of state faces is the civil war and terrorist threat in Syria, which Trump has vowed to tackle immediately and more forcefully than Obama. The future of economic sanctions on Russia will also arise quickly and could be contentious. Tillerson was vague during his hearing about whether he supports the extension of international economic penalties imposed after Russia annexed Crimea and gave support to insurgents in Ukraine’s eastern provinces.

Tillerson was also somewhat vague about climate change, an issue he oversaw as ExxonMobil gradually shifted its position over the past decade. He told senators he believes “the risk of climate change does exist, and the consequences could be serious enough that action should be taken.” But he avoided blaming human activity directly or exclusively and said the ability to predict the effect is “very limited.”

Tillerson was a late addition to the roster of candidates Trump auditioned for what is often considered the most important Cabinet post, and Trump did not know him personally.

Trump chose Tillerson after passing over Republican Mitt Romney, a former presidential nominee who had been highly critical of Trump during the campaign. Tillerson was also recommended by former secretary of state Condoleezza Rice, like Gates a prominent Republican who had worked closely with the oil executive.

In naming Tillerson, Trump called him an “embodiment of the American Dream” and cited the oil executive’s “tenacity, broad experience and deep understanding of geopolitics.”

Sean Sullivan and Kelsey Snell contributed to this report.

Read more:

How Exxon, under Rex Tillerson, won Iraqi oil fields and nearly lost Iraq

What is the Russian Order of Friendship, and why does Rex Tillerson have one?