So yeah, there aren't just poisonous frogs out there that secrete toxins from special glands. There are frogs that inject venom into things.
Sweet dreams, everyone.
Their means of injection are bony spines on their heads, which were discovered when Carlos Jared of Instituto Butantan in São Paulo got stuck with one.
After five hours of intense, radiating pain, he figured the spines were worth looking into.
It turns out Jared was quite lucky: He got the venom of C. greeningi, which is actually much less potent than the other frog being studied. A. brunoi could kill 80 humans with a single gram of its venom.
Not to worry, though: A gram of toxin sounds like a tiny amount, but it's way more than a human would be exposed to during one prick of a frog's spine.
"It is unlikely that a frog of this species produces this much toxin, and only very small amounts would be transferred by the spines into a wound," fellow study author Edmund Brodie Jr. of Utah State University said in a statement. "Regardless, we have been unwilling to test this by allowing a frog to jab us with its spines."
According to Brodie and Jared, there may be many more venomous frogs masquerading as merely poisonous.