So what can't they do? In fact, there are still several things gay Americans can't do that straight Americans might take for granted.
We did some research and talked to the Human Rights Campaign's legal director, Sarah Warbelow, to find out what openly gay Americans are still fighting for.
1. Give blood
This prohibition is specifically for gay and bisexual men, whom the federal government prohibited from donating blood in 1983, during the AIDS epidemic.
The Obama administration recently lifted the ban, but with one very important caveat: A man can only donate blood if he hasn't had sexual relations with another man in the past year. The ruling was disappointing to LGBT rights groups.
"That's really unrealistic to ask people," Warebelow said -- "especially those who are in long-term relationships."
2. Be protected from housing discrimination in 28 states
In 28 states that don't include sexual orientation in their housing discrimination laws, gay and lesbian Americans can be denied an apartment to rent, a home to buy or obtain a mortgage on the basis of their sexual orientation.
In the 30 states that don't ban housing discrimination based on gender identity, transgender Americans face the same possibility.
3. Be protected from business discrimination in 28 states
In 28 states, gay and lesbian Americans can get kicked out of a restaurant, be refused services by a hairdresser or asked to leave a shopping mall. That number's even higher for transgender people, who don't have similar protections in 32 states.
The federal government also has no law prohibiting LGBT discrimination in public spaces and services.
In the states and cities that do have anti-discrimination laws -- including about a dozen cities in Indiana -- some conservatives have successfully pushed for a religious freedom bill to give extra legal protections to service providers who refuse LGBT Americans.
4. Be protected from employer discrimination in most states
The federal government prohibits employer discrimination based on a person's gender. But what's less clear is whether that law includes sexual orientation and gender identity.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission -- the standing authority on these matters for the federal government -- ruled in 2012 and earlier this month that yes, the law does prohibit employer discrimination for LGBT Americans.
But their authority only extends to within the federal government and Congress. In more than half of states, workers can still be fired for being gay.
5. Be protected from adoption discrimination -- especially in 5 states
The June Supreme Court decision that allowed same-sex marriage did not bar discrimination by adoption agencies or foster-care agencies.
Same-sex adoption is legal in all 50 states, but since adoptions are decided on a case-by-case basis, same-sex couples who adopt risk discrimination by the agency or birth parent.
In at least five states, LGBT Americans face some sort of legal barrier that makes it more difficult to adopt -- even from an agency that receives public funds -- or allow a second parent to join an already existing adoption.
6. Be protected from academic discrimination
When admitting students, universities, colleges and any school really aren't allowed to discriminate based on gender or ethnicity. But there's no law prohibiting discrimination based on a student's sexual orientation or gender identity.
The Department of Justice and Department of Education have fought discrimination claims on behalf of LGBT students, but Warbelow says this issue is probably bound for the Supreme Court.
Until then, "there's no guarantee" LGBT students won't be discriminated against.
7. Avoid conversion therapy if you're a minor
In almost every state, a parent can send his or her openly gay child to conversion therapy -- a practice that the American Psychiatric Association found did not actually show a record of changing someone's sexual orientation and could be harmful.
Oregon, New Jersey, California and the District of Columbia ban licensed therapists from performing this.