All of these factors are impossible to capture in typical statistics on violence against women. But Scott Clement, a polling analyst at The Washington Post, found one data set for me that begins to speak to this more unseen (and often unmeasured) side of how women see the world as a result of perceived threats against them.
Between 1973 and 2012, the General Social Survey has asked this question of people surveyed in their home: “Is there any area right around here – that is, within a mile – where you would be afraid to walk alone at night?”
These are the responses over time, separately for the share of men and women who have answered "yes":
It's worth noting that crime has broadly declined in the United States since the early 1990s. But it's hard to say how much of women's perception of their safety is attributable to actual declines in crime, and how much is attributable to other factors (like changing social norms about whether it's okay for women to walk around alone).
Part of our lack of data on the consequences of a culture of violence against women stems from the fact that we don't ask enough questions like this one. So let's have some more.