By 2010, a mere fraction of those same Census tracts — about 100 of them in all — had poverty rates that had fallen below the national average.
The overwhelmingly majority of these urban neighborhoods that were poor in 1970 have not seen new condo construction, or population growth or socioeonomic change in the years since then. They have seen, rather, persistent poverty, and the lingering disadvantages that come with it.
What's more, the number of such high-poverty urban Census tracts in urban America has proliferated since the 1970s. There were 1,119 in 1970, by Cortright and Mahmoudi's count (they've looked at tracts within 10 miles of the central business district in each of these 51 metros). By 2010, there were 3,165.
In that time, the total population living in high-poverty census tracts has more than doubled, as has the number of poor people living there in concentrated poverty:
According to Cortright and Mahmoudi, this spread and persistence of concentration of poverty — and not gentrification — is the "biggest problem confronting American cities." And these trends touch nearly every city in their analysis. Just a sampling of them: