After drawings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad led to killings at French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, a major European nation is facing renewed claims for an end to its own ban on blasphemy.
Meanwhile, an online poll conducted in response to the Paris attacks by news Web site TheJournal.ie found 64 percent in favor of scrapping the laws as quickly as possible.
The traditionally Catholic nation has a complicated legal history with blasphemy. The act of insulting religion is required to be prohibited by Article 40.6.1.i of the Irish constitution, yet in 1999, Ireland's Supreme Court -- when considering the case of a newspaper that had published a cartoon mocking the church -- found that there was no legal definition of blasphemy for it to look to.
"Under this proposed law," Nugent wrote in 2009, "if a person expresses one belief about gods, and other people think that this insults a different belief about gods, then these people can become outraged, and this outrage can make it illegal for the first person to express his or her beliefs."
As blasphemy is prohibited by Ireland's constitution, Irish lawmakers can only end the ban on it by referendum (a feature of the constitution known as the Bunreacht na hÉireann in Irish). After years of calls for a vote, the Fine Gael-Labor coalition government announced that a referendum would be held in 2015, yet campaigners have complained about the slow pace. Polls conducted in 2014 showed around half the electorate supports abolishing the law, with less than a fifth saying they supported it.
While the practice is more common in the Middle East, Ireland is one of a small number of European nations that has a blasphemy law on the books (Germany and Denmark are two others), and as in those countries the law is not enforced anymore -- the last known case in Ireland was in 1855. However, critics say these laws -- in particular new ones like Ireland's -- embolden other nations with restrictive laws on religion.