The secular regime of President Imomali Rakhmon is known for its hard-line opposition to political Islam. From 1992 to 1997, Tajikistan endured a bitter civil war between government forces loyal to Rakhmon and an Islamist opposition. Estimates suggest that 50,000 to 100,000 people were killed.
My colleague Adam Taylor earlier detailed some of the steps the government has taken to push back against Islamic traditions it claims are being imported from Afghanistan:
The U.S. State Department has estimated that more than 90 percent of its population is Muslim, and that religious adherence appears to be growing in the country. Rakhmon, a secular leader though a Sunni himself, has been in power since 1992. His authoritarian government has repeatedly expressed concern over the rise of Islam, linking it to extremism.Under Rakhmon, the Tajikistan government has imposed a number of restrictive policies related to Islam: A few years ago, the country made headlines for attempting to ban children under 18 from mosques and cracking down on men with beards. Since 2005, there have been rules in place about the wearing of hijabs in public educational institutions, though the ban was not always enforced.
As WorldViews noted in April, Rakhmon even linked the wearing of the hijab to prostitution in a televised address. In September, the country's Supreme Court banned the only registered Islamist political party that was officially recognized. And in December, Rakhmon assumed further powers after parliament granted his family life-long immunity from prosecution and designated him "the founder of peace and national unity of Tajikistan."
Perhaps unsurprisingly, troubles remain in this deeply impoverished nation of about 7 million people. Hundreds of Tajik nationals are thought to be in Iraq and Syria among the ranks of the Islamic State militant group. Last year, the chief of an elite police unit assigned to combating Islamist extremists disappeared and is now thought to have joined the Islamic State.
The crackdowns in Tajikistan mirror measures carried out across the border in China's far-western region of Xinjiang, where Beijing has sought to curb the Muslim traditions of the local Uighurs, a Turkic Muslim minority.
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