Below are some of the report's conclusions, some obvious, about the Jewish state, its unique brand of democracy and religion’s role in politics, public life and discrimination.
Before that, just a note: The study uses Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics to define who is “Israeli.” The results are based on some 5,601 face-to-face interviews with individuals from all segments of society, including Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem and Jewish settlers in the occupied West Bank.
Arab residents of Gaza and the West Bank are not included in the survey. Nor are Jews or Israelis living abroad. These have been covered in other Pew research data.
And now, some of the findings (in brief):
Divisions not only exist between Jews and Arabs, but also among Jewish groups.
They might live in the same small country and share many traditions, but the study found that highly religious Jews and secular Jews live in largely separate worlds. The two groups have relatively few close friends in common, and there is almost no intermarriage outside their own groups.
The survey even found that secular Jews, who make up 49 percent of the Jewish population, are more uncomfortable with the notion that their child might marry an ultra-Orthodox Jew (they make up about 9 percent of the Jewish population) than they are with the prospect of their child marrying a Christian.
There are also divisions among all Israel’s religious groups.
The major religious groups in Israel are isolated from one another socially. The study noted that the vast majority of Jews, Muslims, Christians and Druze say all or most of their close friends belong to their own religious community.
And, note that almost everyone interviewed had some kind of religious affiliation: Eighty-one percent identified as Jewish, 14 percent Muslim, 2 percent Christian and 2 percent Druze. Only 1 percent said they had no religion. Jews were divided into four groups — ultra-Orthodox (9 percent), Orthodox (13 percent), traditional (29 percent) and secular (49 percent).
Muslims, Christians and most Druze identified as ethnically Arab.
Most Israeli Jews think that Israel can be Jewish and democratic, most Israeli Arabs do not.
Most Jews across the religious spectrum agree in principle that Israel can be both a democracy and a Jewish state. But they do not agree about which takes precedence if democracy clashes with Jewish law (halakha). Secular Jews say democratic principles should trump religious law, while the ultra-Orthodox say religious law should take priority.
The survey shows that Israeli Arabs generally do not think Israel can be a Jewish state and a democracy at the same time. This view is expressed by majorities of Muslims, Christians and Druze. And overwhelmingly, all three of these groups say that if there is a conflict between Jewish law and democracy, democracy should take precedence.
Most Israeli Arabs think there is discrimination, most Israeli Jews say there isn’t.
Eight in 10 Israeli Arabs say there is a lot of discrimination in Israeli society against Muslims, who are by far the biggest of the religious minorities.
Jews, however, take the opposite view — the vast majority say they do not see much discrimination against Muslims in Israel.
At the same time, Jewish public opinion is divided on whether Israel can serve as a homeland for Jews with an Arab minority. Nearly half of the Israeli Jews questioned say Arabs should be expelled or transferred from Israel.
All groups agree there is little hope for peace between Israelis and Palestinians.
Israeli Arabs are highly skeptical about the sincerity of the Israeli government in seeking a peace agreement, while Israeli Jews are equally skeptical about the sincerity of Palestinian leaders. And roughly four in 10 Jews say the Israeli government is not sincere in pursing an agreement, while a similar number of Arabs say the Palestinian leadership is not sincere, either.
Israeli Jews and U.S. Jews hold different views about religion, politics.
The authors of the study compare the findings with a 2013 study of U.S. Jews, noting that overall Israeli Jews are more religiously observant than their counterparts in the United States.
And, politically, U.S. Jews are more optimistic about the possibility of a peaceful two-state solution and more negative about Jewish settlements in the West Bank than are Israeli Jews.
But there was a lot more optimism all around in 2013, when there was a U.S.-led peace process that has since failed.