Without any doubt, Vox, as Ms. Applebaum pointed out, was formed as a response to the separatist movement of Catalonia. Vox politicians have never understood or accepted the concept that Spain is a country that includes several nations. Francisco Franco, Emilio Mola and José Sanjurjo orchestrated a military coup that resulted in the civil war. A principal reason for the revolt was Franco’s opposition to the autonomy of Catalonia and Basque Country (in addition to opposition to the Republic’s liberal policies, including disbanding most of the military forces and land reform).
Vox has picked up on this concept. Vox is a Franco legacy. Only a Francoist would say “Arriba España” nowadays. Vox politicians, like Franco, would be nobility and huge landowners, people with traditional right-wing persuasion, well-connected Catholics and imperialists who hate liberals. And because Spaniards hate the Catalan drive for independence and their desire for full autonomy, you will see Vox gaining more and more seats in the Spanish parliament.
Thomas Rubio, Washington