Donald Trump arrives to speak at a campaign rally in Sarasota, Fla., on Nov. 7. (Evan Vucci/Associated Press)

Regarding the Nov. 25 front-page article “Research ties fake news to Russia”:

The fake news planted in the United States during the presidential election is a serious issue that demands a serious response. While we cannot say that the fake news in itself was the decisive factor in this election, it clearly had a pernicious effect, seriously misleading voters, particularly the supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump. They believed outrageous and scurrilous tales about Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton, stories that lacked even a shred of truth. If these stories were concocted by amoral entrepreneurs, this would be bad enough. The fact that the lies were concocted and spread by Russian agents is outrageous.

We now stand at the brink of inaugurating as president a man who owes a considerable debt to the Russians for the help they gave his campaign. Whom is he going to serve: the people of the United States, or Russian powers that assisted his presidential run? Any patriotic American should wonder where Mr. Trump’s true loyalties lie.

Eric Schwartz, Williamsport, Md.

Donald Trump claimed victory on election night, but it may be Russia who is the real victor. The article “Research ties fake news to Russia” reported that planting fake news stories in politically conservative news outlets was an effort to erode faith in U.S. democracy.

In another effort to put Mr. Trump in the White House, national security analysts say, Russian President Vladimir Putin and his cronies were behind the hacking of the Democratic National Committee’s emails. Interestingly, in spite of Russia’s misdeeds, Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton is about 2 million votes ahead in the popular vote. How are we to respond to this kind of malicious interference in our democracy? Do we really want Russia, whose values are contrary to those of the United States, choosing our next president?

Jo Ann Tooley, Arlington