Regarding the Oct. 10 editorial “Unconstitutional. Unhinged.”:

White House counsel Pat Cipollone does not understand the constitutional system for the removal of a president. Impeachment proceedings in the House were intended by the framers to be analogous to grand jury proceedings, leading to articles of impeachment, which are the equivalent of an indictment. The Senate then sits to try that indictment and, on conviction, the president is removed from office. The target of a grand jury proceeding has no right to call witnesses, nor does the target get to cross-examine witnesses; witnesses before a grand jury have no right to counsel in the proceedings, though they may claim the privilege against self-incrimination. The House may, however, grant such accommodations if its members choose.

All the rights that Mr. Cipollone claims for the president are fully available in a trial before the Senate, just as they would be available in the trial of an indictment in a trial court.


Charles Fried, Cambridge, Mass.

The writer served as solicitor general of the
United States from 1985 to 1989
under President Ronald Reagan.

I find it ironic and appalling that congressional Republicans are so concerned about investigating corruption in Ukraine — and so determined to obstruct investigation of corruption in the White House.

Laurie Morissette, Heathsville, Va.

Michael Gerson was wrong in his Oct. 8 op-ed, “Corruption isn’t corruption when Trump says it’s not.” The problem is not that the Republicans “will be” implicated. It is that they already are. It has been clear from the start of this presidency that President Trump has engaged in a wide range of impeachable acts, from self-dealing to courting enemies of democracy around the world, to massive lies and attacks on our justice system. When Mr. Trump is finally discredited, we need to ask every Republican in Congress, “What did you know, and when did you know it?”

I hope Republicans will do the right thing and join in Mr. Trump’s impeachment, but even taking the right step at this late date should not be enough to cleanse them of the evil they so long supported.

Richard Dine, Silver Spring