Journalist Minter, who hails from two generations of junkyard owners, makes his living from writing about reuse. His last book, “Junkyard Planet: Travels in the Billion-Dollar Trash Trade,” chronicled the fate of waste and international recycling. He carries on the work in “Secondhand” by following the merchandise — and the money — from objects discarded in Minneapolis or Tucson to ports as far-flung as Malaysia and Benin. The rag-and-bone trade is now a huge, complex international business.
Anyone who has had to clean out the houses of beloved parents, and deal with the reality that no one wants their cherished china or heavy wood furniture, will feel for the unloved objects Minter follows. He begins with the proliferating companies, like Empty the Nest, that help facilitate those poignant clean-outs. Then it’s on to a Goodwill in Tucson, where he tracks a never-ending tide of objects. As he documents, by no means do most things donated to a Goodwill sell. Next stop for the remaining flood of stuff is Goodwill Outlet Centers, where they’re sold by the pound to specialists, many of whom will cross the border to resell in Mexico. Other tons go to Pakistan or Africa.
What doesn’t make the cut there is often shipped back to the United States to be broken down into rags — who knew that rags are such big business? One company that Minter studies sold 15 million pounds of rags in the United States in one year. And then clothes cross the ocean yet again, to be broken down and respun into new fabric in India. “A secondhand trade that once flowed in one direction — from rich to poor — now goes in every direction,” Minter writes.
His chapter on Japan is particularly eye-opening. Japan has been a huge market for secondhand goods, partly because apartments don’t tend to be gargantuan, so there’s incentive to own less. But as Minter documents, the Japanese are also in the vanguard of the minimalist movement partly because their affluence has allowed them to accumulate so much, so fast. And Japanese birthrates have declined so precipitously that more people are dying than being born, which means there aren’t devoted relatives to clean out the apartments of the deceased. Japan has 8 million empty homes, known as “ghost homes,” and the elderly are encouraged to practice shukatsu, preparing for their own demise.
Of course, there are objects that are unlikely to ever spark joy again, like the 3.8 million unused fondue sets currently stashed in British homes. But in much of the developing world, secondhand shops are more common than shops selling new objects. Everyone knows about Cuba’s meticulously maintained vintage cars; less well-known is the fact that Ghana is a world capital for fixing up American cars sold at auction after accidents. In the South Bronx, damaged cars are packed with parts and shipped to Africa, where they’re repaired and resold.
Same goes for old tube TVs. In Ghana, “Tamale, a town of, officially, 350,000 people, has more than a hundred TV-repair businesses. . . . In the big cities of Ghana and Nigeria — the most affluent parts of West Africa — the electronic repair shops are more common than Starbucks in Manhattan.”
Minter is no poet. His prose is statistic-rich and straightforward. He’s at his best in the chapters discussing the ecological impact of waste in terms of product durability, and encouraging companies to be more transparent about planned obsolescence. He reveals how some companies, like manufacturers of car seats, put expiration dates on their products and exhort people not to reuse them, even though there’s no hard evidence that “expired” car seats are unsafe. He reserves particular ire for companies like Apple, which actively — and possibly illegally — discourage consumers from learning to fix their own electronics by warning that opening your phone will void its warranty.
Paradoxically, of course, a washing machine that lasts forever is not going to do much good for the economy — or for people in the developing world who can’t afford new ones. In terms of a philosophy of wise recycling, Minter exhorts the media to “stop stigmatizing the trade in secondhand — especially the immigrant and ethnic-minority businesses that make up most of it. Instead, it needs to recognize secondhand as a globally significant industry and start covering it as such. From Mexico to Ghana to India, secondhand is the consumer economy. But good luck finding any quality, consistent news coverage.”
“Secondhand” serves as a fine model of how to start that coverage.
Travels in the New Global Garage Sale
By Adam Minter
Bloomsbury. 299 pp. $28