Acting/Vacant

Confirmed

2017

2018

2019

AGRIC.

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND S.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORT.

TREASURY

VETERANS A.

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

The U.N. Ambassador position was

downgraded after Haley’s departure

and it’s no longer part of the Cabinet.

Acting/Vacant

Confirmed

2018

2017

2019

AGRIC.

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND S.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORT.

TREASURY

VETERANS A.

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

March 2018

Last time that

all Cabinet

heads were

confirmed.

The U.N. Ambassador position was

downgraded after Haley’s departure

and it’s no longer part of the Cabinet.

Acting/Vacant

Confirmed

2017

2018

2019

AGRICULTURE

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND SEC.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORTATION

TREASURY

VETERAN AFFAIRS

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

March 2018

Last time that

all Cabinet

heads were

confirmed.

The U.N. Ambassador position was

downgraded after Haley’s departure

and it’s no longer part of the Cabinet.

Only five Cabinet heads

confirmed by Feb. 1.

Acting/Vacant

Confirmed

2017

2018

2019

AGRICULTURE

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND SEC.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORTATION

TREASURY

VETERAN AFFAIRS

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

Last time that all Cabinet

heads were confirmed.

Only five Cabinet heads

confirmed by Feb. 1.

The U.N. Ambassador position was

downgraded after Haley’s departure

and it’s no longer part of the Cabinet.

Acting/Vacant

Confirmed

2017

2018

2019

AGRICULTURE

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND SEC.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORTATION

TREASURY

VETERAN AFFAIRS

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

March 2018 was the last time that

all Cabinet heads were confirmed.

Only five Cabinet heads

confirmed by Feb. 1.

The U.N. Ambassador position was

downgraded after Haley’s departure

and it’s no longer part of the Cabinet.

The Pentagon finally has a permanent leader again, nearly seven months after former general Jim Mattis quit during a dispute with President Trump over pulling U.S. troops out of Syria. On Tuesday, the Senate confirmed Mark T. Esper as secretary of defense.

The wait for Cabinet secretaries to be nominated and confirmed has become standard operating procedure in the Trump administration. In the past two-and-a-half years, there’s been only about four months when Trump had a full Cabinet of Senate-confirmed leaders. And several agencies have gone through four changes at the top.

DEFENSE

Mark Esper

CONFIRMED

JULY 23

HOMELAND SECURITY

Kevin McAleenan

ACTING

LABOR

Patrick Pizzella

ACTING

SMALL BUSINESS ADMIN.

Chris Pilkerton

ACTING

U.N. AMBASSADOR

Jonathan Cohen

ACTING

Photos by Jabin Botsford (The Washington Post), U.S.

Department of Labor, U.S. Small Business

Administration, Drew Angerer (Getty Images)

DEFENSE

Mark Esper

CONFIRMED

JULY 23

HOMELAND SECURITY

Kevin McAleenan

ACTING

LABOR

Patrick Pizzella

ACTING

SMALL BUSINESS ADMIN.

Chris Pilkerton

ACTING

U.N. AMBASSADOR

Jonathan Cohen

ACTING

Photos by Jabin Botsford (The Washington Post), U.S. Department of

Labor, U.S. Small Business Administration,

Drew Angerer (Getty Images)

DEFENSE

Mark Esper

CONFIRMED

JULY 23

HOMELAND SECURITY

Kevin McAleenan

ACTING

LABOR

Patrick Pizzella

ACTING

SMALL BUSINESS ADMIN.

Chris Pilkerton

ACTING

U.N.

AMBASSADOR

Jonathan Cohen

ACTING

Photos by Jabin Botsford (The Washington Post), U.S. Department of Labor,

U.S. Small Business Administration, Drew Angerer (Getty Images)

DEFENSE

Mark Esper

CONFIRMED JULY 23

HOMELAND SECURITY

Kevin McAleenan

ACTING

LABOR

Patrick Pizzella

ACTING

SMALL BUSINESS ADMIN.

Chris Pilkerton

ACTING

U.N. AMBASSADOR

Jonathan Cohen

ACTING

Photos by Jabin Botsford (The Washington Post), U.S. Department of Labor,

U.S. Small Business Administration, Drew Angerer (Getty Images)

980

DEFENSE

Mark Esper

CONFIRMED JULY 23

DEFENSE

Kevin McAleenan

ACTING

LABOR

Patrick Pizzella

ACTING

SMALL BUSINESS ADMIN.

Chris Pilkerton

ACTING

DEFENSE

Jonathan Cohen

ACTING

Three of the 21 Cabinet-level positions still have acting directors: Homeland Security, Labor and the Small Business Administration. There’s been an acting U.N. ambassador since January, when Nikki Haley resigned, and the administration removed the post from the Cabinet.

“It’s a lot. It’s way too many," Sen. James Lankford (R-Okla.) told The Post in February, when asked about the administration’s reliance on acting leaders. “You want to have confirmed individuals there, because they have a lot more authority to be able to make decisions and implement policy.”

But Trump has said that he likes the churn at the top of the agencies. “I sort of like ‘acting,’” he told reporters in January, after a round of departures. “It gives me more flexibility.” But the turnover is starkly different from agency leadership during the administrations of former presidents Barack Obama and George W. Bush. During Trump’s tenure, only one of the ‘Big Four’ secretaries (State, Treasury, Defense and Justice) and the Homeland Security chief has been in the department since the beginning. The five of them went unchanged in the same period of the two previous presidents.

Donald

Trump

Barack

Obama

George W.

Bush

‘17

‘18

‘19

‘09

‘10

‘11

‘01

‘02

‘03

Donald Trump

Barack Obama

George W. Bush

‘17

‘18

‘19

‘09

‘10

‘11

‘01

‘02

‘03

Donald Trump

Barack Obama

George W. Bush

‘17

‘18

‘19

‘09

‘10

‘11

‘01

‘02

‘03

AGRICULTURE

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND SEC.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORTATION

TREASURY

VETERAN AFFAIRS

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

Donald Trump

Barack Obama

George W. Bush

2017

2018

2019

2009

2010

2011

2001

2002

2003

AGRICULTURE

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND SEC.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORTATION

TREASURY

VETERAN AFFAIRS

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

Donald Trump

Barack Obama

George W. Bush

2017

2019

2009

2011

2001

2003

2018

2010

2002

AGRICULTURE

COMMERCE

DEFENSE

EDUCATION

ENERGY

HHS

HOMELAND SEC.

HUD

INTERIOR

JUSTICE

LABOR

STATE

TRANSPORTATION

TREASURY

VETERAN AFFAIRS

CIA

EPA

OMB

DNI

SBA

TRADE REP.

UN AMB.

Note: Data for the first year of each president starting on Inauguration Day (Jan. 20); data of the second year ends on July 23. Data for George W. Bush doesn’t include Homeland Security, CIA director and director of national intelligence. Those positions were created during Bush’s tenure.

Trump has fallen behind since Inauguration Day. Obama and Bush had most of their permanent Cabinet secretaries confirmed on the first day of their presidencies. For Trump, that happened in but two departments: Defense and Homeland Security. The blame can’t be put on the delay in confirmation hearings and votes in the Senate. The high level of turnover in the current administration plays a big role. Eighteen of Obama’s first appointments and sixteen of Bush’s were still in place by July 22 of their second year. Ten of Trump’s first appointees are still serving.

Who is in charge?

Currently with an acting secretary

After Esper’s confirmation as secretary of defense, there are still three Cabinet-level leaders to confirm, in addition to Trump’s nominee for the top diplomatic spot at the United Nations. Acting secretary Kevin McAleenan is the fourth person to run Homeland Security, as the agency grapples with continued controversy over its treatment of migrants at the border. Labor Secretary Alexander Acosta resigned earlier this month; Eugene Scalia has been tapped to succeed him. Jovita Carranza was nominated in April to head the Small Business Administration, but no confirmation hearing has been scheduled.

Department of Homeland Security

2017

2018

2019

John F.

Kelly

Kirstjen Nielsen

July 31

May 12

April 7

John Kelly named

chief of staff

Nielsen

resigns

Department of Labor

2017

2018

2019

Alexander Acosta

April 27

July 17

Acosta gets confirmed.

afterAndrew Puzder

withdrawns

Acosta steps down

following the Epstein

case controversy

Small Business Administration

2017

2018

2019

Linda McMahon

Feb. 14

April 12

McMahon steps down to run Trump’s

reelection campaign super PAC

U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations

2017

2018

2019

Nikki Haley

Jan. 24

Dec. 31

Haley resigns. The position

is downgraded and no longer

part of the Cabinet

Department of Homeland Security

2017

2018

2019

John F. Kelly

Kirstjen Nielsen

31 July

May 12

April 7

John Kelly named

chief of staff

Nielsen resigns. There’s no

nominee yet to succeed her

Department of Labor

2017

2018

2019

Alexander Acosta

April 27

July 17

Alexander Acosta gets confirmed.

Previously, Andrew Puzder was

withdrawn from consideration

Acosta steps down

following the controversy about

his role on the Epstein case

Small Business Administration

2017

2018

2019

Linda McMahon

Feb. 14

April 12

Linda McMahon

confirmed by the Senate

McMahon steps down to run

Trump’s reelection campaign

super PAC

U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations

2017

2018

2019

Nikki Haley

Jan. 24

Dec. 31

Feb. 22

Nikki Haley

confirmed by

the Senate

Haley resigns. The position

is downgraded and no longer

part of the Cabinet

Kelly Knight

Craft is the

new nominee

Department of Homeland Security

2017

2018

2019

Kevin

McAleenan

John F. Kelly

Elaine Duke

Kirstjen Nielsen

20 Jan.

31 July

May 12

April 7

John Kelly named

chief of staff

Nielsen resigns. There’s no

nominee yet to succeed her

Department of Labor

2017

2018

2019

Ed Hugler

Alexander Acosta

April 27

July 17

Alexander Acosta gets confirmed.

Previously, Andrew Puzder was

withdrawn from consideration

Acosta’s resignation is effective one week after

announcing his departure following the

controversy about his role on the Jeffrey Epstein case

Small Business Administration

2017

2018

2019

Chris

Pilkerton

Linda McMahon

Feb. 14

April 12

Linda McMahon

confirmed by the Senate

McMahon steps down to run

Trump’s reelection campaign

super PAC

U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations

2017

2018

2019

Jonathan Cohen

Nikki Haley

Jan. 24

Dec. 31

Feb. 22

Nikki Haley

confirmed by the Senate

Haley resigns. The position

is downgraded and no longer

part of the Cabinet

Kelly Knight Craft

nominated to be the

next U.N. Ambassador

Department of Homeland Security

2017

2018

2019

Kevin

McAleenan

John F. Kelly

Elaine Duke

Kirstjen Nielsen

20 Jan.

31 July

May 12

April 7

John Kelly named

chief of staff

Nielsen resigns. There’s no

nominee yet to succeed her

Department of Labor

2017

2018

2019

Ed Hugler

Alexander Acosta

April 27

July 17

Alexander Acosta gets confirmed.

Previously, Andrew Puzder was

withdrawn from consideration

Acosta’s resignation is effective one week after

announcing his departure following the

controversy about his role on the Jeffrey Epstein case

Small Business Administration

2017

2018

2019

Chris

Pilkerton

Linda McMahon

Feb. 14

April 12

Linda McMahon

confirmed by the Senate

McMahon steps down to run

Trump’s reelection campaign

super PAC

U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations

2017

2018

2019

Jonathan Cohen

Nikki Haley

Jan. 24

Dec. 31

Feb. 22

Nikki Haley

confirmed by the Senate

Haley resigns. The position

is downgraded and no longer

part of the Cabinet

Kelly Knight Craft

nominated to be the

next U.N. Ambassador

Positions that have been held by acting heads

Eight different departments have seen their leader change during the 30 months of the Trump presidency, a level of tumult that did not exist in the Obama and Bush administrations. Under the two previous presidents, Cabinet secretaries signaled their resignations with plenty of time for their replacements to be vetted, named, confirmed and sworn in with no gap, or with a gap of just a few days. None of Trump’s replacements has been ready to step into the job without someone serving in an active capacity.

Some departments had acting secretaries for several weeks, or even months, until Trump’s first nomination was confirmed, also a departure from the previous two administrations.

Defense

2017

2018

2019

Patrick

Shanahan

Jim Mattis

Jan. 20

Dec. 31

June 18

July 22

Jim

Mattis

confirmed

Mattis

resigns

Shanahan

withdraws

Mark

Esper

confirmed

Health and Human Services

2017

2018

2019

Tom Price

Alex Azar

Feb. 10

Sep. 29

Jan. 24

Tom

Price

confirmed

Price resigns amid criticism

for taking charter flights

at taxpayer expense

Alex Azar

confirmed

Attorney General

2017

2018

2019

William

Barr

Jeff Sessions

Feb. 14

Feb. 8

Nov. 8

Jeff Sessions

confirmed

William

Barr

confirmed

Sessions steps down,

following months of harsh

criticism from the president

Interior

2017

2018

2019

David

Bernhardt

Ryan Zinke

March 1

Jan. 2

April 11

Ryan Zinke

confirmed

Zinke resigns amid

multiple probes tied

to his real estate

dealings

Bernhardt

confirmed after

serving as

acting secretary

State

2017

2018

2019

Rex Tillerson

Mike Pompeo

Feb 1

March 13

April 26

Rex Tillerson

confirmed

Trump fires

Tillerson

in a tweet

Mike Pompeo

confirmed

Veterans Affairs

2017

2018

2019

Robert Wilkie

David Shulkin

Feb. 13

March 28

July 23

David

Shulkin

confirmed

Shulkin ousted. Trump

nominated Ronny Jackson,

but withdrew weeks later

Robert

Wilkie

confirmed

Central Intelligence Agency

2017

2018

2019

Mike Pompeo

Gina Haspel

Jan. 23

March 13

May 17

Mike

Pompeo

confirmed

Pompeo

leaves

the CIA

Gina Haspel

confirmed

Environmental Protection Agency

2017

2018

2019

Andrew

Wheeler

Andrew

Wheeler

Scott Pruitt

Feb. 17

July 5

Feb 28

Scott Pruitt

confirmed

Pruitt resigns

after scandals

Andrew Wheeler

confirmed

Defense

2017

2018

2019

Patrick

Shanahan

Jim Mattis

Jan. 20

Dec. 31

June 18

July 22

Jim Mattis

confirmed

Mattis

resigns

Shanahan withdraws

after reports of domestic

violence become public

Mark

Esper

confirmed

Health and Human Services

2017

2018

2019

Tom Price

Alex Azar

Feb. 10

Sep. 29

Jan. 24

Tom Price

confirmed

Price resigns amid criticism

for taking charter flights at

taxpayer expense

Alex Azar

confirmed

Attorney General

2017

2018

2019

William P.

Barr

Jeff Sessions

Feb. 14

Feb. 8

Nov. 8

Jeff Sessions

confirmed

William Barr

confirmed

Sessions steps down,

following months of harsh

criticism from the president

Interior

2017

2018

2019

David

Bernhardt

Ryan Zinke

March 1

Jan. 2

April 11

Ryan Zinke

confirmed

Zinke resigns amid multiple

probes tied to his real estate

dealings and his conduct in office

Bernhardt

confirmed after

serving as

acting secretary

State

2017

2018

2019

Rex Tillerson

Mike Pompeo

Feb 1

March 13

April 26

Rex Tillerson

confirmed

Trump fires

Tillerson

in a tweet

Mike Pompeo, former

CIA director, confirmed

Veterans Affairs

2017

2018

2019

Robert

Wilkie

Robert Wilkie

David Shulkin

Feb. 13

March 28

July 23

David Shulkin

confirmed

Shulkin ousted. Trump

nominated Ronny Jackson,

but withdrew weeks later

Robert Wilkie

confirmed

Central Intelligence Agency

2017

2018

2019

Mike Pompeo

Gina Haspel

Jan. 23

March 13

May 17

Mike

Pompeo

confirmed

Pompeo leaves the

CIA to become

secretary of state

Gina Haspel, first woman to

become director of the

CIA, is confirmed

Environmental Protection Agency

2017

2018

2019

Andrew

Wheeler

Andrew

Wheeler

Scott Pruitt

Feb. 17

July 5

Feb 28

Scott Pruitt

confirmed

Pruitt resigns after ethics

and management scandals

Andrew Wheeler

confirmed

Defense

2017

2018

2019

Patrick

Shanahan

Jim Mattis

Jan. 20

Dec. 31

June 18

July 22

Jim Mattis

confirmed

Jim Mattis

resigns

Shanahan withdraws

after reports of domestic

violence become public

Mark

Esper

confirmed

Health and Human Services

2017

2018

2019

Eric Hargan

Tom Price

Alex Azar

Feb. 10

Sep. 29

Jan. 24

Tom Price

confirmed

Price resigns amid criticism for taking

charter flights at taxpayer expense

Alex Azar

confirmed

Attorney General

2017

2018

2019

Matthew

Whitaker

Jeff Sessions

William P. Barr

Jan. 30

Feb. 8

Feb. 14

Nov. 8

Trump fires acting

attorney general

Sally Yates

Jeff Sessions

confirmed

William Barr

confirmed

Jeff Sessions steps down the day after

the midterm election, following months

of harsh criticism from the president

Interior

2017

2018

2019

David

Bernhardt

David

Bernhardt

Ryan Zinke

March 1

Jan. 2

April 11

Ryan Zinke

confirmed

Zinke resigns amid multiple probes tied to

his real estate dealings and his conduct in office

Bernhardt confirmed

after spending over

four months as acting

secretary

State

2017

2018

2019

Rex Tillerson

Mike Pompeo

Feb 1

March 13

April 26

Rex Tillerson

confirmed

Trump fires Tillerson

in a tweet

Mike Pompeo, former

CIA director, confirmed

Veterans Affairs

2017

2018

2019

Robert

Wilkie

Robert Wilkie

David Shulkin

Feb. 13

March 28

June 20

July 23

David Shulkin

confirmed

Shulkin ousted following a mutiny

in the department. Trump tapped

his doctor, Ronny Jackson,

as the replacement

Trump withdraws

Jackson’s nomination

Robert Wilkie

confirmed

Central Intelligence Agency

2017

2018

2019

Mike Pompeo

Gina Haspel

Jan. 23

March 13

May 17

Mike Pompeo

confirmed

Pompeo leaves the

CIA to become the new

secretary of state

Gina Haspel, the first woman to

become director of the CIA, is confirmed

Environmental Protection Agency

2017

2018

2019

Scott Pruitt

Andrew Wheeler

Andrew Wheeler

Feb. 17

July 5

Feb 28

Scott Pruitt

confirmed

Pruitt resigns after ethics

and management scandals

Andrew Wheeler

confirmed

Defense

2017

2018

2019

Jim Mattis

Patrick Shanahan

Jan. 20

Dec. 31

June 18

July 22

Jim Mattis

confirmed

Jim Mattis

resigns

Shanahan withdraws

after reports of domestic

violence become public

Mark

Esper

confirmed

Health and Human Services

2017

2018

2019

Eric Hargan

Tom Price

Alex Azar

Feb. 10

Sep. 29

Jan. 24

Tom Price

confirmed

Price resigns amid criticism for taking

charter flights at taxpayer expense

Alex Azar

confirmed

Attorney General

2017

2018

2019

Matthew

Whitaker

Jeff Sessions

William P. Barr

Jan. 30

Feb. 8

Feb. 14

Nov. 8

Trump fires acting

attorney general

Sally Yates

Jeff Sessions

confirmed

William Barr

confirmed

Jeff Sessions steps down the day after

the midterm election, following months

of harsh criticism from the president

Interior

2017

2018

2019

David

Bernhardt

David

Bernhardt

Ryan Zinke

March 1

Jan. 2

April 11

Ryan Zinke

confirmed

Zinke resigns amid multiple probes tied to

his real estate dealings and his conduct in office

Bernhardt confirmed

after spending over

four months as acting

secretary

State

2017

2018

2019

Rex Tillerson

Mike Pompeo

Feb 1

March 13

April 26

Rex Tillerson

confirmed

Trump fires Tillerson

in a tweet

Mike Pompeo, former

CIA director, confirmed

Veterans Affairs

2017

2018

2019

Robert

Wilkie

Robert Wilkie

David Shulkin

Feb. 13

March 28

June 20

July 23

David Shulkin

confirmed

Shulkin ousted following a mutiny in

the department. Trump taps his doctor,

Ronny Jackson, as the replacement

Trump withdraws

Jackson’s nomination

Robert Wilkie

confirmed

Central Intelligence Agency

2017

2018

2019

Gina

Haspel

Mike Pompeo

Gina Haspel

Jan. 23

March 13

May 17

Mike Pompeo

confirmed

Pompeo leaves the CIA to become

the new secretary of state

Gina Haspel, the first woman to

become director of the CIA, is confirmed

Environmental Protection Agency

2017

2018

2019

Scott Pruitt

Andrew Wheeler

Andrew Wheeler

Feb. 17

July 5

Feb 28

Scott Pruitt

confirmed

Pruitt resigns after ethics

and management scandals

Andrew Wheeler

confirmed

The first nominee still leads the department

Agriculture

2017

2018

2019

Sonny Perdue

April 25

Commerce

Wilbur Ross

Feb. 27

Education

Betsy DeVos

Feb. 7

Energy

Rick Perry

March 2

Housing and Urban Development

Ben Carson

March 2

Transportation

Elaine Chao

Jan. 31

Treasury

Steve Mnuchin

Feb. 13

Office of Management and Budget

Mick Mulvaney

Feb. 16

Director of National Intelligence

Dan Coats

March 15

U.S. Trade Representative

Robert Lighthizer

May 11

Agriculture

2017

2018

2019

Sonny Perdue

April 25

Commerce

Wilbur Ross

Feb. 27

Education

Betsy DeVos

Feb. 7

Energy

Rick Perry

March 2

Housing and Urban Development

Ben Carson

March 2

Transportation

Elaine Chao

Jan. 31

Treasury

Steve Mnuchin

Feb. 13

Office of Management and Budget

Mick Mulvaney

Feb. 16

Director of National Intelligence

Dan Coats

March 15

U.S. Trade Representative

Robert Lighthizer

May 11

Agriculture

2017

2018

2019

Sonny Perdue

April 25

Commerce

Wilbur Ross

Feb. 27

Education

Betsy DeVos

Feb. 7

Energy

Rick Perry

March 2

Housing and Urban Development

Ben Carson

March 2

Transportation

Elaine Chao

Jan. 31

Treasury

Steve Mnuchin

Feb. 13

Office of Management and Budget

Mick Mulvaney

Feb. 16

Director of National Intelligence

Dan Coats

March 15

U.S. Trade Representative

Robert Lighthizer

May 11

Agriculture

2017

2018

2019

Mike Young

Sonny Perdue

April 25

Commerce

Wilbur Ross

Feb. 27

Education

Betsy DeVos

Feb. 7

Energy

Rick Perry

March 2

Housing and Urban Development

Ben Carson

March 2

Transportation

Elaine Chao

Jan. 31

Treasury

Steve Mnuchin

Feb. 13

Office of Management and Budget

Mick Mulvaney

Feb. 16

Director of National Intelligence

Dan Coats

March 15

U.S. Trade Representative

Robert Lighthizer

May 11

Beyond the Cabinet

Three positions have been particularly unstable in the Trump era. Since the key role of White House chief of staff doesn’t require Senate confirmation, only once since President Truman created the job has someone served in an acting capacity: Peter Rouse stepped in when Obama’s first chief of staff, Rahm Emanuel, resigned to run for Chicago mayor. But Mick Mulvaney has been acting chief of staff since mid-December 2018 — and he’s the third person in the job since Inauguration Day.

2017

2018

2019

Mick

Mulvaney

Reince

Priebus

John F. Kelly

July 28

Dec. 14

President Trump ousts

Priebus in a move to

bring order to the

West Wing

Kelly leaves and

Mulvaney replaces him as

acting Chief of Staff, while

still leading the OMB

2017

2018

2019

Reince

Priebus

John F. Kelly

Mick Mulvaney

July 28

Dec. 14

President Trump ousts

Priebus in a move to bring

order to the West Wing

Kelly leaves the White House

and Mulvaney replaces him as

acting Chief of Staff, while still

leading the OMB

2017

2018

2019

Reince Priebus

John F. Kelly

Mick Mulvaney

July 28

Dec. 14

President Trump ousts

Priebus in a move to bring

order to the West Wing

Kelly leaves the White House

and Mulvaney replaces him as

acting Chief of Staff, while still

leading the OMB

2017

2018

2019

Reince Priebus

John F. Kelly

Mick Mulvaney

July 28

Dec. 14

President Trump ousts

Priebus in a move to bring

order to the West Wing

Kelly leaves the White House and

Mulvaney replaced him as

acting Chief of Staff, while still

leading the OMB

The first hurricane of the season already has struck Louisiana, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency still is without a head. FEMA’s deputy has been acting administrator since William “Brock” Long left in February; nominee Jeff Byard has yet to be confirmed.

2017

2018

2019

Brock Long

June 20

Feb. 13

Long quits after an

embatteled tenure and

clashes with Nielsen

2017

2018

2019

Brock Long

June 20

Feb. 13

Long quits after an

embatteled tenure and

clashes with Nielsen

2017

2018

2019

Robert Fenton Jr.

Brock Long

Peter Gaynor

June 20

Feb. 13

Long quits after an

embatteled tenure and

clashes with Nielsen

2017

2018

2019

Robert Fenton Jr.

Brock Long

Peter Gaynor

June 20

Feb. 13

Long quits after an

embatteled tenure and

clashes with Nielsen

Immigration has been Trump’s signature issue throughout his campaign and presidency. Yet his administration has never had an Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) director confirmed. The position has been held by five different people, all of them in acting capacity. The nominations of Thomas Homan and Ronald Vitiello were withdrawn, and Mark Morgan has been announced as the new nominee, but the administration still has to make the nomination official.

2017

2018

2019

Thomas D. Homan

Ronald D. Vitiello

Jan. 30

May 15

April 4

Homan steps down

Trump ditches

Vitiello, wants

someone “tougher”

2017

2018

2019

Thomas D. Homan

Ronald D. Vitiello

Jan. 30

May 15

April 4

Homan steps down after

his nomination stalled

in the Senate

Trump ditches Vitiello,

claiming that he wants

someone “tougher”

2017

2018

2019

Thomas D. Homan

Ronald D. Vitiello

Jan. 30

May 15

April 4

April

27

July

5

Homan steps down after

his nomination stalled

in the Senate

Trump ditches Vitiello,

claiming that he wants

someone “tougher”

2017

2018

2019

Thomas D. Homan

Ronald D. Vitiello

Jan. 30

May 15

April 4

April 27

July 5

Homan steps down after

his nomination stalled

in the Senate

Trump ditches Vitiello,

claiming that he wants

someone “tougher”

Ann Gerhart contributed to this article.

Sources: Key positions tracker (Partnership for Public Service/Washington Post) and media reports.

correction: A previous version of this graphic identified Jonathan Cohen as the acting secretary of Defense in one of the charts. He is the acting U.S. Representative to the United Nations.