As was inevitable, Congress early Thursday morning finished counting the electoral votes submitted by the states and confirmed that President-elect Joe Biden will become president at noon Jan. 20, succeeding President Trump. That inevitability, though, came only after two unprecedented efforts to prevent its happening: the storming of the U.S. Capitol itself by a pro-Trump mob and an effort supported by most of the Republicans who serve on Capitol Hill to block the count.

There were two objections to the receipt of the electoral votes that met the requirements for consideration, focused on the states of Arizona and Pennsylvania. Of the 262 Republicans in the House and Senate who were present, 146 supported one or both of those objections. Most of that number, predictably, were in the House — but more than a half-dozen senators joined them.

The effect is more forcefully visualized than stated. When Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Tex.) signed on to the House objection to Arizona’s vote, he forced an eventual vote on whether the state’s 3.4 million votes should be considered valid. Every purple dot on the chart below — 127 in total — is a Republican who supported that idea.

When Sen. Josh Hawley (R-Mo.) agreed to contest the 6.9 million votes in Pennsylvania, even more Republicans — 145 in total — concurred. (Two Republicans, Sen. John Kennedy (R-La.) and Rep. Jake LaTurner of Kansas, voted for the Arizona objection but not Pennsylvania.)

You’ll notice that the objections weren’t just from Republicans in the most safely Republican districts or states. (The spectrum above is based on either state-level 2020 results, for senators, or the most recently tallied congressional-district-level results, which could have been either 2016 or 2020.) Even Republicans from blue and purple districts sided with the effort to prioritize Trump’s personal frustrations over the demonstrated will of those 10 million Americans.

The difference in the support for the Arizona and Pennsylvania objections is itself notable. The objections were different in rationale: Cruz’s Arizona ploy aimed at the creation of a body to evaluate the election; Hawley’s focused on ostensible concerns over the constitutionality of mail-in voting in the state. Perhaps because of those differences — or perhaps because the vote on Pennsylvania occurred in the middle of the night and there would have been fewer viewers — more Republicans signed on to Hawley’s action.

One of the more notable additions was Sen. Rick Scott (R-Fla.), who supported the objection on Pennsylvania but not on Arizona. Scott is a stalwart ally of Trump who in 2018 levied the same sort of complaints about the vote in his state when it seemed that mail-in ballots might turn his election night lead into a loss. In the days following that election, he claimed without evidence — and with Trump’s amplification — that the vote count in several heavily Democratic counties in the state was riddled with fraud and should be discontinued. It was a cynical ploy and unsubstantiated at the time, and an attempt that eventually was shown to be without merit. But it provided an interesting road map to the last two months of contests from Trump himself.

Those who supported one or both objections probably fall into one of three categories. There are those such as Reps. Mo Brooks (R-Ala.) and Louie Gohmert (R-Tex.) who clearly believe the false assertions made by Trump and conservative media. They almost certainly sincerely believe, as Trump claims to, that Biden should not become president because he lost the election. (Again, to put a fine point on it: This is nonsense.)

Then there are the opportunists, people such as Cruz, who tried to figure out a way to leverage Trump’s anti-democratic effort in a way that would both find favor with his base and maintain a semblance of legitimacy. In the middle are Republicans who may be hearing from their constituents that they are worried about voter fraud and who want to address those concerns, choosing the easier path (interrupting the transition of power) in lieu of the more difficult one (challenging those constituents’ unwarranted concerns).

The result is that most of the Republicans who serve the country in the House and Senate chose to support the rejection of the will of 10 million American voters, hours after members of a violent mob — riled into a fury by false claims from the president — had stood in the very chambers where their votes were cast.

There may in fact have been more Republicans expressing support for Trump’s effort to undo the results of the election on the floor of the House and Senate through their votes on the electoral vote count than the number of people who had been there illegally after storming into the Capitol to prevent that vote from happening.

Supported both objections

Senate

  • Cruz, Ted (R-Tex.)
  • Hawley, Josh (R-Mo.)
  • Hyde-Smith, Cindy (R-Miss.)
  • Lummis, Cynthia M. (R-Wyo.)
  • Marshall, Roger (R-Kan.)
  • Tuberville, Tommy (R-Ala.)

House

  • Aderholt, Robert B. (R-Ala.)
  • Allen, Rick (R-Ga.)
  • Arrington, Jodey (R-Tex.)
  • Babin, Brian (R-Tex.)
  • Baird, Jim (R-Ind.)
  • Banks, Jim (R-Ind.)
  • Bergman, Jack (R-Mich.)
  • Bice, Stephanie I. (R-Okla.)
  • Biggs, Andy (R-Ariz.)
  • Bishop, Dan (R-N.C.)
  • Boebert, Lauren (R-Colo.)
  • Bost, Mike (R-Ill.)
  • Brooks, Mo (R-Ala.)
  • Budd, Ted (R-N.C.)
  • Burchett, Tim (R-Tenn.)
  • Burgess, Michael (R-Tex.)
  • Calvert, Ken (R-Calif.)
  • Cammack, Kat (R-Fla.)
  • Carl, Jerry L. (R-Ala.)
  • Carter, Buddy (R-Ga.)
  • Carter, John (R-Tex.)
  • Cawthorn, Madison (R-N.C.)
  • Cline, Ben (R-Va.)
  • Cloud, Michael (R-Tex.)
  • Clyde, Andrew S. (R-Ga.)
  • Cole, Tom (R-Okla.)
  • Crawford, Rick (R-Ark.)
  • Davidson, Warren (R-Ohio)
  • DesJarlais, Scott (R-Tenn.)
  • Diaz-Balart, Mario (R-Fla.)
  • Donalds, Byron (R-Fla.)
  • Duncan, Jeff (R-S.C.)
  • Dunn, Neal (R-Fla.)
  • Estes, Ron (R-Kan.)
  • Fallon, Pat (R-Tex.)
  • Fischbach, Michelle (R-Minn.)
  • Fitzgerald, Scott (R-Wis.)
  • Fleischmann, Chuck (R-Tenn.)
  • Franklin, C. Scott (R-Fla.)
  • Fulcher, Russ (R-Idaho)
  • Gaetz, Matt (R-Fla.)
  • Garcia, Mike (R-Calif.)
  • Gibbs, Bob (R-Ohio)
  • Gimenez, Carlos A. (R-Fla.)
  • Gohmert, Louie (R-Tex.)
  • Good, Bob (R-Va.)
  • Gooden, Lance (R-Tex.)
  • Gosar, Paul A. (R-Ariz.)
  • Graves, Sam (R-Mo.)
  • Green, Mark (R-Tenn.)
  • Greene, Marjorie Taylor (R-Ga.)
  • Griffith, Morgan (R-Va.)
  • Guest, Michael (R-Miss.)
  • Hagedorn, Jim (R-Minn.)
  • Harris, Andy (R-Md.)
  • Harshbarger, Diana (R-Tenn.)
  • Hartzler, Vicky (R-Mo.)
  • Hern, Kevin (R-Okla.)
  • Herrell, Yvette (R-N.M.)
  • Hice, Jody (R-Ga.)
  • Higgins, Clay (R-La.)
  • Hudson, Richard (R-N.C.)
  • Issa, Darrell (R-Calif.)
  • Jackson, Ronny (R-Tex.)
  • Jacobs, Chris (R-N.Y.)
  • Johnson, Bill (R-Ohio)
  • Johnson, Mike (R-La.)
  • Jordan, Jim (R-Ohio)
  • Joyce, John (R-Pa.)
  • Kelly, Mike (R-Pa.)
  • Kelly, Trent (R-Miss.)
  • LaMalfa, Doug (R-Calif.)
  • Lamborn, Doug (R-Colo.)
  • Lesko, Debbie (R-Ariz.)
  • Long, Billy (R-Mo.)
  • Loudermilk, Barry (R-Ga.)
  • Lucas, Frank (R-Okla.)
  • Luetkemeyer, Blaine (R-Mo.)
  • Malliotakis, Nicole (R-N.Y.)
  • Mann, Tracey (R-Kan.)
  • Mast, Brian (R-Fla.)
  • McCarthy, Kevin (R-Calif.)
  • McClain, Lisa C. (R-Mich.)
  • Miller, Carol (R-W.Va.)
  • Miller, Mary E. (R-Ill.)
  • Moore, Barry (R-Ala.)
  • Mullin, Markwayne (R-Okla.)
  • Nehls, Troy E. (R-Tex.)
  • Norman, Ralph (R-S.C.)
  • Nunes, Devin (R-Calif.)
  • Obernolte, Jay (R-Calif.)
  • Palazzo, Steven (R-Miss.)
  • Palmer, Gary (R-Ala.)
  • Perry, Scott (R-Pa.)
  • Pfluger, August (R-Tex.)
  • Posey, Bill (R-Fla.)
  • Reschenthaler, Guy (R-Pa.)
  • Rice, Tom (R-S.C.)
  • Rogers, Harold (R-Ky.)
  • Rogers, Mike (R-Ala.)
  • Rose, John W. (R-Tenn.)
  • Rosendale, Matthew M. (R-Mont.)
  • Rouzer, David (R-N.C.)
  • Rutherford, John (R-Fla.)
  • Scalise, Steve (R-La.)
  • Sessions, Pete (R-Tex.)
  • Smith, Adrian (R-Neb.)
  • Smith, Jason (R-Mo.)
  • Steube, W. Gregory (R-Fla.)
  • Tiffany, Thomas P. (R-Wis.)
  • Timmons, William (R-S.C.)
  • Van Drew, Jefferson (R-N.J.)
  • Walberg, Tim (R-Mich.)
  • Walorski, Jackie (R-Ind.)
  • Weber, Randy (R-Tex.)
  • Webster, Daniel (R-Fla.)
  • Williams, Roger (R-Tex.)
  • Wilson, Joe (R-S.C.)
  • Wright, Ron (R-Tex.)
  • Zeldin, Lee (R-N.Y.)

Supported only Arizona objection

Senate

  • Kennedy, John (R-La.)

House

  • LaTurner, Jake (R-Kan.)

Supported only Pennsylvania objection

Senate

  • Scott, Rick (R-Fla.)

House

  • Bentz, Cliff (R-Ore.)
  • Chabot, Steve (R-Ohio)
  • Foxx, Virginia (R-N.C.)
  • Graves, Garret (R-La.)
  • Keller, Fred (R-Pa.)
  • Kustoff, David (R-Tenn.)
  • Meuser, Daniel (R-Pa.)
  • Mooney, Alex (R-W.Va.)
  • Murphy, Gregory Francis (R-N.C.)
  • Owens, Burgess (R-Utah)
  • Pence, Greg (R-Ind.)
  • Schweikert, David (R-Ariz.)
  • Smucker, Lloyd (R-Pa.)
  • Stefanik, Elise (R-N.Y.)
  • Stewart, Chris (R-Utah)
  • Thompson, Glenn (R-Pa.)
  • Van Duyne, Beth (R-Tex.)
  • Wittman, Robert J. (R-Va.)
correction

This article was updated to include Sen. Kennedy, who'd been inadvertently omitted.