It’s hardly an earth-shattering revelation that Republicans — and particularly conservative Republicans — are actively policing dissent within their party. After 17 congressional Republicans voted to either impeach former president Donald Trump or to convict him after his trial in the Senate, most of them faced rebukes from official Republican Party entities. Even with his term in office over, Trump broadly remains the face of the party. Those who felt he should be held accountable for his role in spurring the attack on the Capitol on Jan. 6 were treated as something akin to infidels.

New data from the Pew Research Center reveals the breadth of sentiment about the place of political dissent, both within the Republican Party and between the two major parties.

The question posed by Pew’s researchers was straightforward: How accepting should either party be of those who held views that might conflict with the party generally? Four scenarios were offered. The first was general disagreement with the party’s position on important issues. The second, open criticism of the party’s most recent president. The third, willingness of elected officials to support groups that openly advocated violence against the political opposition. Fourth, asked only of Republicans, was how accepting the party should be of those who voted to impeach or convict Trump.

In general, particularly on the question of criticism of the president, Democrats (and Democrat-leaning independents, who were included in the analysis) were more accepting of dissent. Neither party, happily, was very accepting of elected officials who might encourage political violence.

When we add another dimension — the ideology of these partisans — the picture becomes more interesting. It’s liberal Democrats who are the most accepting of dissent among elected officials and conservative Republicans who are least accepting of it. In fact, on the question of general disagreement on important issues, there’s no difference in the views of moderate Republicans and moderate Democrats. But there’s a 16-point difference between liberal Democrats and conservative Republicans.

On the question of critiquing the president, that gap between the ideological extremes widens to 30 points.

Why? Because of who holds power in each party. The Democratic Party is controlled by moderates, including President Biden. The GOP is controlled by conservatives, including (at least conceptually) Trump. So it’s the moderate Republicans who are more accepting of dissent, since they are the ones more likely to be dissenting from the party line. And on the left, that’s true of more liberal Democrats. It’s the liberals who are trying to push the Democratic Party in a different direction and who, therefore, are more willing to embrace divergence from stark partisanship.

The gulf in the Republican Party is best illustrated by that last question, of course. Moderate Republicans are twice as likely as conservatives to say that their party should be accepting of elected officials who voted to impeach or convict Trump.

That alone tells you where the power in the party lies. Willingness to accept dissent on that particular issue has very much not been the party’s position.