President Trump placed himself at the center of a new national security strategy Monday, casting his election as a pivot from failed policies pushed by his predecessors and presenting his "America First" doctrine as the organizing principle for U.S. engagement around the world.
In a year-end, campaign-style speech, the president emphasized his view that the United States has been cheated and taken advantage of abroad while its citizens were ill-served at home — a situation he said his security plan would seek to reverse.
"For many years, our citizens watched as Washington politicians presided over one disappointment after another; too many of our leaders — so many — who forgot whose voices they were to respect, and whose interest they were supposed to defend," Trump said at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, before an audience that included Cabinet secretaries, government workers and uniformed members of the military.
The National Security Strategy, a congressionally mandated mission statement, is supposed to guide an administration's priorities for global engagement, economic bargaining and demonstrations of military strength.
While it is viewed as an important policy document, its release is usually a low-key affair and Trump is believed to be the only U.S. president to present the plan with a speech, an aide said. At times Monday, Trump seemed as intent on revisiting his electoral victory as he was on defining a new national security strategy for the country.
"You spoke loud and you spoke clear," Trump said of his upset election last year. "On November 8, 2016, you voted to make America great again. You embraced new leadership and very new strategies and also a glorious new hope."
Trump, as he did during the campaign, declared the United States must push for better trade deals to remain strong when it comes to national security. "Economic security is national security," he said. "Economic vitality, growth and prosperity at home is absolutely necessary for American power and influence abroad."
Yet many of the trade tactics he has advocated could end up hurting the U.S. economy.
He boasted of killing the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a trade pact between a dozen countries, but supporters of the accord say it would have helped keep Chinese economic influence at bay.
The linkage Trump drew between economic and political power is valid, but Trump's confrontational trade policies work against his own goals, said Nicholas Burns, a Harvard Kennedy School professor and former senior State Department official.
"He is right about the philosophical point, but all his practical policies undercut it," Burns said.
C. Fred Bergsten, veteran trade expert at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, agreed.
"There's a germ of truth in what he says," Bergsten conceded. U.S. policy has failed to choke off intellectual property theft, especially in China. But, Bergsten added, "his overarching point that these are terrible [trade] deals, that they adversely affect U.S. economic interests, he's never offered a shred of proof of that."
Trump has dismissed this type of criticism and used the speech to emphasize one of his campaign themes — that past administrations got the short-end of trade agreements because they didn't now how to cut deals.
"Our leaders in Washington negotiated disastrous trade deals that brought massive profits to many foreign nations but sent thousands of American factories and millions of American jobs to those other countries," he said.
Trump also boasted of his decision to withdraw from the "very expensive and unfair Paris climate accord" that President Barack Obama agreed to two years ago. But supporters of the accord say it is a small step toward slowing global warming that could prove catastrophic economically as well as from a climate view. And Obama repeatedly argued that denial of climate science would undercut renewable energy technologies that the U.S. economy needs to remain competitive in the future.
Trump's campaign theme of "America First" formed the foundation of his remarks.
"A nation that does not protect prosperity at home cannot protect its interests abroad," Trump said. "A nation that is not prepared to win a war is a nation not capable of preventing a war. A nation that is not proud of its history cannot be confident in its future. And a nation that is not certain of its values cannot summon the will to defend them."
Burns argued that "what's missing from this document is any emphasis that the U.S. has to promote democracy and human freedom, which most American presidents — John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan — have felt was important. He's weakening us on these essential foundations of American power."
Trump highlighted claimed accomplishments — including on issues not directly related to national security — a list the administration contends has not received the attention it deserves.
Alongside withdrawal from what he called unfair trade and climate deals and a sharper focus on terrorism and border security, Trump listed a soaring stock market, deregulation and the likelihood of forthcoming tax cuts.
The national security strategy documents are broad outlines of U.S. policy that guide other, more specific planning such as nuclear and ballistic missile force posture.
Trump's version has four main organizing principles: protecting the American homeland, protecting American prosperity, preserving peace through strength and advancing U.S. influence.
He presented China and Russia as competitors that want to realign global power in their interests, potentially threatening the United States. At the same time, he added, those nations can be partners in pursuit of shared interests.
That is a familiar theme from past administrations, but the Trump document frames the contest as one that previous U.S. leaders failed to adequately recognize or counter.
"China and Russia challenge American power, influence, and interests, attempting to erode American security and prosperity," the document says. "They are determined to make economies less free and less fair, to grow their militaries, and to control information and data to repress their societies and expand their influence."
The president said intellectual property theft would be targeted, a clear warning to China which American companies have complained about for years. "We will no longer tolerate trading abuse," he warned.
As a candidate, Trump accused China of "raping" the United States economically and stealing jobs. As president, he has developed and trumpeted a warm relationship with Chinese President Xi Jinping, whom he credits with helping to apply pressure on North Korea over its nuclear weapons program.
Trump also pointed to his energy policies as a source of strength at home and abroad, suggesting that the United States could use its "energy dominance" to enhance its influence.
The Trump administration has indeed sought to open up more federal lands to coal, oil, and natural gas exploration and production, but most of the domestic energy boom took place under the Obama administration. Oil output under Obama grew by more than 4 million barrels a day and natural gas output in states like Pennsylvania, Texas and Oklahoma rose rapidly.
Trump has publicly complimented Russian President Vladimir Putin, calling him "very smart," and has sought a better relationship with Russia after years of worsening ties under Obama. He has been openly skeptical of U.S. intelligence findings that Russia mounted a systematic effort to undermine the 2016 presidential election. But Trump has not reversed congressional sanctions on Russia over its actions in Ukraine, as Putin hoped he would.
The strategy document released Monday skirts the issue of Russia's involvement in the presidential election.
"Through modernized forms of subversive tactics, Russia interferes in the domestic political affairs of countries around the world," the document says.