National Rifle Association members visit exhibitor booths at the NRA Annual Meetings and Exhibits convention in April 2017 in Atlanta. (Scott Olson/Getty Images)

The National Rifle Association is, like AAA or AARP, a bundle of bargains, a smorgasbord of savings on insurance policies, motel rooms, bottles of wine and prescription drugs. But unlike the nation’s other interest groups that boast millions of members, the NRA also unabashedly embraces controversy, lunging into battle with fiery rhetoric and no-holds-barred political attacks.

The NRA touts itself with the slogan “Saving Freedom, Delivering Value,” promising its 5 million faithful that “It pays to be a member!” But that piece of the NRA bundle has shrunk in recent days, as a slew of major companies have responded to a groundswell of anti-gun activism by canceling their discounts and other affinity deals with the gun lobby.

The businesses that have cut ties with the NRA include big brand names such as car-rental giant Enterprise, Delta Air Lines, MetLife insurance and the bank behind an NRA Visa credit card.

Despite that unprecedented pressure from corporate America, the NRA is unlikely to lose a significant number of members or see its influence diminished, according to those who have studied the organization. Supporters and critics say the NRA is cushioned against this kind of pushback because its members sign up not for financial gain but for a chance to be part of a cultural vanguard.

“Nobody’s joining NRA to get a discount at Hertz,” said Richard Feldman, a former NRA lobbyist who is president of the Independent Firearm Owners Association. “Joining NRA is like making a religious commitment; it’s a statement about where you stand not just on guns, but on one view of what it means to be an American. It’s a powerful symbolic move.”

The NRA has been showing its political force in the weeks since the shooting massacre at a Parkland, Fla., high school, after which students and gun-control activists directly assailed the group. NRA officials countered, calling its opponents un-American. After President Trump signaled a willingness to embrace some gun-control measures this week, the White House softened that tone following Trump’s meeting with NRA officials on Thursday night. Chris Cox, the NRA’s executive director, tweeted after the meeting that Trump and Vice President Pence support the Second Amendment and “don’t want gun control.”

Delta Air Lines’ decision to end group discounts for NRA members met with a swift rebuke in Georgia, where legislators overwhelmingly approved a bill Thursday that was stripped of a lucrative tax break that would have primarily benefited the airline. That prompted leaders in New York, Virginia, Washington and other blue states to encourage Delta to relocate its hub to more friendly environs.

On Friday, Delta announced that it wanted to remain neutral in the gun debate and is now planning to curtail discounts for any “politically divisive” group.


Attendees say the Pledge of Allegiance during the leadership forum at the National Rifle Association's annual convention in Indianapolis in 2014. (AJ Mast/AP)

“The whole package is not that different from AARP or the Sierra Club,” said Thomas Holyoke, a political scientist at Fresno State University who studies interest groups. But as the NRA has adopted more absolutist positions against gun regulations and has embraced more radical political language, “the NRA is really becoming the opposite of AAA, which no one joins for their political positions.”

All large membership groups are valuable to big business, which craves the organizations’ membership lists as reliable sources of potential customers and marketing targets. That creates a symbiotic relationship in which both sides tend to eschew controversy, trying to keep their ties clean and neutral.

Other interest groups have occasionally hit a speed bump of controversy. For example, AARP, the retired people’s lobby, suffered through a spate of membership-card burnings in 2003, after the organization endorsed a Medicaid bill that some senior citizens argued would do more to help drug companies than provide security for the elderly.

But the NRA has embraced conflict as few other huge membership groups have dared to. And the organization’s approach has grown ever more caustic, from NRA leader Wayne LaPierre’s 1995 warning that “jack-booted government thugs” were amassing power to strip gun owners of their constitutional rights, to the late Charlton Heston’s scalding address to NRA members in 2000, telling Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore that his firearm would be taken only “from my cold dead hands.”


Flags fly over a First National Bank branch in Omaha last month. The Nebraska-based First National Bank of Omaha said it will not renew its contract to issue the National Rifle Association Visa Card. (Nati Harnik/AP)

A Delta Air Lines jet sits at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta. Georgia lawmakers punished Atlanta-based Delta Air Lines for its decision to cut business ties with the National Rifle Association. (David Goldman/AP)

The wave of corporate moves to separate from the NRA following the Parkland massacre is unique in its size, but it is far from the first time businesses have felt compelled to distance themselves from the group.

“The pattern goes like this: A horrific event happens, a corporate player takes a stand and they’re praised by the general public and squished like a bug by the NRA and their core following,” said Josh Sugarmann, author of a history of the NRA and executive director of the Violence Policy Center, a pro-gun-control group. “It remains to be seen if this time is any different. All these companies aren’t making these decisions out of any ideological commitment; they’re reading the situation and seeing the power of social media.”


The NRA booth at the Conservative Political Action Conference in National Harbor, Md., last month. (Alex Wong/Getty Images)

But such decisions don’t necessarily damage the NRA’s appeal, Sugarmann said. “They’re kind of a two-headed monster. They play to their hardcore base and don’t care about appealing to the general public, so they don’t see a backlash like this as damaging. They view being attacked by the mainstream media as a positive benefit, and their base may look at big business in the same way. On the other hand, they don’t want to be a corporate pariah. So they have pressures in both directions.”

The NRA did not respond to a request for comment.

In a statement this week, the group said, “the loss of a discount will neither scare nor distract one single NRA member from our mission to stand and defend the individual freedoms that have always made America the greatest nation in the world.”

As a culture warrior that has mastered the art of advancing its interests through brutal rhetoric and intense tribalism, the NRA, like President Trump, has become a master of gaining and maintaining power with the fervent support of an engaged minority.

But the NRA faces existential pressure as well — a steady decline in the percentage of U.S. households that own firearms and a reversal of fortunes of some major gun manufacturers. In addition, the decisions by Dick’s Sporting Goods, Walmart, and Kroger stores not to sell guns to anyone under 21 represent a big blow to an industry that puts a premium on winning over young people as gun owners.


Craig Bedgood helps set up the Springfield Armory booth before the start of the NRA Annual Meetings and Exhibits convention in April 2017 in Atlanta. (Scott Olson/Getty Images)

Many of the businesses now distancing themselves from the group likely will return eventually, because that list of 5 million members is that valuable, Feldman said.

“When I was working on the Hill for NRA, I’d ask congressmen, ‘Would you rather have the maximum contribution we can make or a mailing to your district?’ And it was never a question,” the former lobbyist said. “It was one of the greatest lists in the country, and they wanted that access.”

For the NRA, the future of firearms in the United States will be determined by how well-organized and vocal gun-rights supporters are, not by winning over new members with goodies. The organization is far more devoted to developing cultural affinities — making marketing connections with country music stars, for example — than it is to adding to its menu of discounts.

Former NRA executive vice president Warren Cassidy liked to explain that his organization was different from other interest groups: “You’d get a far better understanding” of the NRA, he once told The Washington Post, “if you just approach us as if [we are] one of the world’s great religions.”

For years, the group posted a slogan at the convention booths where it sold insurance policies: “Share the Belief.”

David Nakamura, J. Freedom du Lac and Marwa Eltagouri contributed to this report.