The Washington PostDemocracy Dies in Darkness

The pandemic is generating tons of discarded PPE. This entrepreneur is turning it into bricks.

Editor’s note: An earlier version of this story, which relied too heavily on information provided by its primary subject, Binish Desai, included several assertions that The Post cannot substantiate. References to his firm, Eco Eclectic Technologies, have been removed because it is not listed in India’s register of companies, as has a reference to a city in India where Desai grew up but no longer lives. Other details have been corrected, based on additional reporting. Desai completed a bachelor’s degree in biotechnology, not environmental engineering. The Post could confirm that he was involved in only one partnership – not dozens – to collect used personal protective equipment for recycling; bins were placed in small shops and apartment buildings, not markets and restaurants.

The Post should have sought independent corroboration of Desai’s claims before publication.

Binish Desai is trying to find a better way to recycle mountains of pandemic by-products in the form of used and discarded masks. (Video: The Washington Post)

NEW DELHI — As coronavirus cases spread around the world earlier this year, Binish Desai found himself increasingly nervous. It wasn't only the pandemic that worried him but the waste it was generating.

Masks and protective gear were being used a single time and then discarded by the tons, eventually destined for landfills or bodies of water.

"I have eco-anxiety," said Desai, a 27-year-old who describes himself as an environmental activist and innovator in western India. When he sees waste, he said, he automatically begins thinking about ways to use it.

By September, he had come up with a solution: take the used protective gear and mold it into bricks for buildings. He said he already has made more than 40,000 such bricks for projects including homes and factories, and is gearing up to produce 15,000 a day.

Desai’s recycling effort is one small step toward addressing a global environmental hazard. To fight the virus, countries around the world have increased production of personal protective equipment, or PPE. Such gear is often made of polypropylene plastic, a synthetic resin that can take hundreds of years to degrade.

Exactly how much waste the pandemic is creating worldwide is not clear, but experts say it is significant. One study estimated — on the basis of a projection for Italy — that the world could be using up to 129 billion face masks a month.

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India, home to more than 1.3 billion people, has mandated the use of masks in public and has manufactured tens of millions of protective suits since the start of the pandemic. Nearly 20,000 tons of coronavirus-related biomedical waste were generated between June and September, according to figures from India’s environmental watchdog.

A recent report from the United Nations Environment Program estimated that developing countries are generating about five pounds of covid-related health-care waste per hospital bed each day. In Wuhan, China, the original epicenter of the pandemic, daily medical waste increased sixfold at the height of the outbreak.

In the United Kingdom, health authorities distributed more than 2.3 billion PPE items for use by health and social services in England from February to July of this year — almost as many as in all of 2019.

Experts say the sudden surge in the consumption of single-use PPE has reversed years of efforts to battle the scourge of non-degradable solid waste.

The increase is a matter of “enormous concern that is polluting our planet,” said Jodi Sherman, a professor at the Yale School of Public Health who studies the environmental impacts of health-care systems.

Kumar Raja Vanapalli, an expert on plastic waste management at the Indian Institute of Technology, said that although some used PPE will end up in landfills, some could end up in oceans where it “may affect marine life and even break into microplastics” that ultimately “end up in food streams and come back to us.”

Several innovators are working on ways to recycle the waste, whether in the form of liquid biofuel or through new products such as Desai’s bricks.

Desai, who lives in the state of Gujarat, claims to be a kind of recycling prodigy. He became interested in the field as a child and said he founded his own company at the age of 16. Later he went on to study biotechnology. He said he has turned coffee grounds into bowls and plates, fabric lint into soundproofing panels and textile waste into furniture. Before the pandemic, he said he was mainly making eco-friendly bricks composed of industrial paper sludge.

His latest innovation, he said, adds biomedical waste to the mix — 52 percent, to be precise. To obtain the waste, he installed bins outside shops and apartment buildings in which people could discard their used items.

First, the PPE material from body coverings, masks and head caps is isolated for three days. Then the fabric is sanitized and shredded before it is sanitized again. Next it is mixed with 47 percent paper sludge and a binding agent and pressed by hand into various molds. Each brick weighs around three pounds and costs about 4 cents, Desai said.

One of his clients is Chirag Naik, the owner of a local packaging factory. Naik ordered 5,000 of Desai’s PPE bricks to build an expansion of his facility starting in December.

“There are always questions that come initially, such as viability, safety and strength,” said Naik, 48. But once those questions were addressed, he said, his excitement grew. “When sustainability is the need of the hour, I personally believe that such innovations need to become mainstream.”

Desai, meanwhile, said he is only getting started. He is eager to collaborate with governments to convert biomedical waste into the large-scale production of bricks that could be used in road construction and other infrastructure projects.

The sooner that happens, “the faster we will be able to get rid” of PPE waste, he said. “We need to start taking it very seriously.”

Joanna Slater contributed to this report.

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