A previous version of this story reported that Medina Spirit’s test showed it exceeded the permitted limit for betamethasone, a threshold to which trainer Bob Baffert had referred at his barn Sunday morning. The Kentucky Horse Racing Commission altered that standard in August, disallowing any presence of betamethasone at any time in a 14-day window prior to a race.

For the second time in three years, the winner of the Kentucky Derby could be disqualified after the race, with the runner-up being declared the victor. But a reversal of this year’s result might not have any effect on betting payouts, a possibility that has at least one prominent gambler considering legal action.

Medina Spirit, under the guidance of renowned trainer Bob Baffert, held off Mandaloun to win the Kentucky Derby on May 1. However, Baffert on Sunday acknowledged his horse tested positive for a steroid, betamethasone, that is legal to use in training but must not be present in a horse within two weeks of a race.

Churchill Downs Inc., the wagering company that owns the track where the Derby is staged, suspended Baffert from its facility while further testing was conducted. “If the findings are upheld,” the company said, “Medina Spirit’s results in the Kentucky Derby will be invalidated and Mandaloun will be declared the winner.”

That does not mean those who bet on Mandaloun to win would be able to cash their tickets.

Asked Sunday about the possibility Mandaloun bettors might profit from their wagers, an official with Churchill Downs confirmed Kentucky Horse Racing Commission regulations, which state that payment of tickets is made “on the basis of the order of finish as declared ‘official’ by the stewards or judges” and that any subsequent ruling that would change the order of finish or awarding purse money, such as the potential disqualification of Medina Spirit, would not affect payouts to gamblers.

The most recent disqualification of a Kentucky Derby winner, in 2019, resulted in something of a reverse situation. Maximum Security appeared to win the race but was disqualified for interference before track stewards declared the results official. That made second-place Country House the winner both on the track and on betting tickets.

Maximum Security’s owner filed an appeal, which gave some of the horse’s bettors hope they could cash their tickets if the interference ruling was overturned. The stewards’ decision was soon upheld, but not before an expert on horse racing regulations told the Louisville Courier-Journal that the bettors were already out of luck.

“Those tickets will never be good,” Bob Heleringer, author of “Equine Regulatory Law,” told the newspaper at the time. He described the finality of betting results once a race becomes official as “one of the most irrevocable standards in racing.”

To Michael Beychok, though, it’s time for a change.

“I’m cheated out of the money that I bet, and I want to get what I’m owed, what I should have gotten if the game was on the up-and-up,” Beychok said Sunday in a phone interview.

Beychok is a Louisiana-based political consultant who in 2012 won an Eclipse Award worth $1 million as the Daily Racing Form/National Thoroughbred Racing Association handicapper of the year. He said the parimutuel rules would cost him about $50,000 in Kentucky Derby winnings should Mandaloun be declared the winner, and he said he was soliciting feedback from numerous other bettors. Beychok said he had spoken with a couple of lawyers and was considering a class-action lawsuit against Churchill Downs.

Noting that Churchill Downs also runs casinos, Beychok said he would have much more confidence in one of the company’s blackjack games than its signature event.

“I want the same assurances when I bet my money with them at the racetrack — that the game is going to be on the up-and-up,” he said. “And it’s not. It’s absolutely not on the up-and-up all the time, and that’s what’s frustrating.”

Ray Paulick, who runs a website that covers the sport, agreed “it would be against the rules” to pay out wagers on Mandaloun should Medina Spirit be disqualified, but he also noted things have changed dramatically from the era when bets on horse races were mostly made at the tracks.

“Nowadays, especially with the pandemic, probably 90 percent of bets that are made on races are done digitally,” he said, “through an account that has your information — who you are, where you live, all that stuff.”

Whereas a track issuing paper tickets previously had no means of knowing who had wagered on which horses, and for how much, now a corporation such as Churchill Downs can access that information for bets placed online. It theoretically could shift those electronic payouts from Medina Spirit bettors to Mandaloun backers, although not without regulatory change and almost certainly not without a huge amount of pushback.

There is, however, a degree of legal precedent for what Beychok is considering. Paulick pointed to a $20,000 settlement last year after a harness racing bettor filed suit, alleging he was cheated out of more than $30,000 in 2016 when a winning horse at a New Jersey track was revealed to have tested positive for a banned performance-enhancing substance.

That bettor, who made his wagers online while based in Illinois, was assisted in his lawsuit by animal-advocacy group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. A senior vice president of PETA, Kathy Guillermo, said Sunday via email that lawyers for the organization are “taking an extremely close look at many possibilities” involving this year’s Kentucky Derby, including “whether bettors have again been swindled.”

Of the decorated trainer embroiled in the situation, Guillermo wrote, “The time has long passed for regulators to stop protecting Bob Baffert with minimal fines and finally kick him out of racing.”

Baffert has won the Kentucky Derby a record seven times, and he has also won the other two Triple Crown races a combined 10 times. He also has had several horses fail drug tests over the past year, and his late-blooming 2018 Triple Crown winner, Justify, reportedly did the same shortly before embarking on that campaign.

“Thirty verified drug violations over his career,” Guillermo said of Baffert, “with five in just the last six months, point to a pattern of cheating that should never have been tolerated these long years. He will undoubtedly come up with yet another implausible excuse, but this time, the regulators need to get a backbone, protect the horses from systematic abuse, and ban him permanently from racing.”

Baffert said Sunday that he was “just totally shocked” by Medina Spirit’s positive test for betamethasone and that “we didn’t have anything to do with this.”

Baffert added that he was “worried about our sport,” which he said had “taken a lot of hits.”

Beychok said he wasn’t sure how successful a potential lawsuit might be, but he described it as “the right thing to do to bring attention to the fact that there’s an injustice here.” Horse racing officials need to run a “cleaner” operation, the political consultant said, or “no one’s going to bet on it anymore.”

“I’m not a lawyer,” Beychok said. “I am an expert on public relations, however, and I would think that this is beyond a legal argument, winning or losing.

“This is about presenting to the public a face that you are offering a fair and equal game of chance.”