WASHINGTON - Three weeks of no pay and lots of uncertainty has changed how aerospace engineer Robert Sprayberry thinks about his job. He joined the Federal Aviation Administration a decade ago because it promised him a stable career with steady hours. He might not earn as much money as he could in the private sector, but he could be home more to help raise three young children.
But that careful career calculation has been undercut by a partial federal government shutdown that on its 25th day is the longest in history, with 800,000 employees not getting paychecks because of a budget impasse over border wall funding. So Sprayberry's wife picks up extra shifts as a nurse to make up for his lost income. And he has started looking around for a new job, this time with a private firm.
"If I'm going to put up with this level of stress," Sprayberry, 38, said, "I might as well get paid for it."
A job in the government has long been underwritten by the understanding that while you wouldn't strike it rich on the federal pay scale, you also didn't need to worry about the corporate world's mercurial whims. The focus was on serving the public, rather than pursuing profits. The pace could be frustratingly inefficient, but it also was not maddeningly chaotic. And the trade-off came with solid health and retirement benefits.
That grand bargain - deployed for decades to lure talent into the government ranks - is threatened today by a bruising shutdown with no end in sight. And this is the third shutdown in one year. The other two shutdowns were brief - the longest ran two days. But they were tremors foreshadowing what was to come. The situation is exacerbated by a president who appears to view many government workers with contempt, deriding the federal bureaucracy as "the Deep State" and noting derisively via tweet that he thinks most government workers are Democrats.
So a government gig suddenly doesn't look quite so secure. The mission is muddied. The bloom is off. And the potential for a federal brain drain - along with drags on recruitment and morale - looms large.
"The end of the shutdown is not the end of the harm," said Max Stier, chief executive of the Partnership for Public Service, a nonpartisan group that has surveyed job satisfaction in government agencies for the last 15 years.
Morale at government agencies already was suffering under President Donald Trump's administration, according to the Partnership's 2018 Best Places to Work in Government survey, which found marked declines in job satisfaction since the Obama administration at a range of agencies, including the State and Agriculture departments. Under Trump, the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Homeland Security were among the agencies that saw their poll numbers go up.
Trump's administration imposed a federal hiring freeze and has seen high turnover among key political appointees.
Now, a lingering shutdown is raising tensions. Some federal workers have been forced to return to their jobs without pay. Unions representing Treasury employees and air traffic controllers sued the Trump administration to claim this was wrong. But a federal judge declined to issue an emergency intervention in the case Tuesday.
It's difficult to measure the impact of a shutdown with an annual job satisfaction survey, Stier said. But government rankings took a slight hit during a 17-day government shutdown in 2013.
"It's certainly true that there are real consequences to a shutdown," Stier said.
It was one of the factors that made Aaron Johnson, 26, reconsider his career choice. He is a security guard at the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian. Protecting the artifacts, he said, gave him a sense of purpose and introduced him to people from around the world.
Lost wages have irked Johnson, but it was the president's comments about the federal workforce in recent months that truly pushed him to look for a new job - perhaps in retail.
"As long as he's in office, I need to try to get somewhere where I can feel secure," Johnson said.
Anel Flores, a mission systems engineer at Goddard, the NASA facility in Greenbelt, Maryland, is also tired of Trump's attacks on federal workers. And so when he returns to work - whenever that is - he plans to file for retirement after 36 years at NASA.
"Why do I have to worry about the president throwing another tantrum?" Flores said.
Trump is not the first U.S. president to cast doubts on the federal workforce. President Ronald Reagan famously said that "government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem." President Bill Clinton received a report on government reform from his vice president that described federal workers as "good people trapped in a bad system."
But Trump has gone further in suggesting - without proof - that federal workers are working to undermine his administration, said David Lewis, a political science professor at Vanderbilt University who studies the presidency and federal service branch.
The combination of a boss who is denigrating your work and a shutdown with an unknown ending might lead more federal workers to jump ship.
"They'll ask themselves, 'Why am I sacrificing? I could be working in the private sector,'" Lewis said.
Some workers already are testing the waters. An upcoming job fair for workers with security clearances has seen a 20 percent jump in registrations over last year, said Rob Riggins of Cleared Jobs, which is organizing the Jan. 31 event in Tysons Corner, Virginia. He attributed the increase to the shutdown.
"People are getting nervous," Riggins said. "They want to have a contingency plan."
Others are avoiding the federal government from the start. Jim Tierney, who teaches at Harvard Law School, said he's noticed a spike in interest in his state attorneys' general law clinic under Trump. He attributed the change to Trump's frequent attacks on the federal Justice Department and drastic curtailment at the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
These fledgling attorneys - some of the best in the country - are looking beyond the familiar hotshot attorney posts with the federal government, Tierney said.
"Traditionally you'd never have Harvard Law grads going to a state AG's office," said Tierney, a former Maine attorney general. "But then they look at what's happening in D.C."
Not every federal agency will suffer equally if workers start looking around for new jobs, said Jeri Buchholz, NASA's head of human resources until she retired three years ago. The FBI will always be the FBI, she said. Astronauts still want to work at NASA. But, she said, economists and attorneys might find plenty of opportunities in the private sector.
The shutdown will hurt recruiting for government jobs, Buchholz said. "If any private company was doing what the federal government is doing right now, they'd lose their reputation and good people wouldn't go to work there."
The shutdown also has made it harder for the government to find new hires - a point of emphasis for agencies such as the Border Patrol. Trump signed an executive order shortly after he took office calling for the agency to hire 5,000 more agents.
Last week, the Border Patrol was supposed to host a recruiting booth at the Houston International Sports Boat and Sports Show. But the shutdown put an end to that. No staff could be spared. The Border Patrol was forced to cancel.
WASHINGTON - Attorney general nominee William Barr suggested Tuesday that any report written by special counsel Robert Mueller III might not be made public, signaling the possibility of future battles within the government over his findings.
The remarks by Barr, who is expected to be confirmed by the Republican-controlled Senate, highlight the uncertainty surrounding how he will grapple with what many expect will be the final steps of Mueller's investigation into President Donald Trump, his advisers, and Russian interference in the 2016 election.
Barr pledged at his confirmation hearing Tuesday before the Senate Judiciary Committee to keep politics out of Justice Department decisions about criminal investigations. He said he would allow Mueller, whom he called a longtime friend, to finish his work, but Democrats expressed concern that, if confirmed, Barr might not follow the advice of the agency's ethics officials.
Throughout the nine-hour hearing, Barr lavished praise on Mueller, noting that under the regulations he could fire the special counsel only for good cause, adding: "Frankly, it's unimaginable to me that Bob would do anything that gave rise to good cause."
Barr, 68, said he would not "be bullied into doing anything I think is wrong" - by Congress, the media or the president.
Lawmakers repeatedly pressed him about the report Mueller is expected to produce at the end of his investigation. In a sign of potential fights to come, Barr said any report from Mueller would probably be treated like internal Justice Department prosecution memos that are kept secret.
In a chippy back-and-forth with Sen. Mazie Hirono, D-Hawaii, Barr cast doubt on the notion that Mueller's report might be made public.
"The rules I think say the special counsel will prepare a summary report on any prosecutive or declination decisions, and that shall be confidential and be treated as any other declination or prosecutive material within the department," Barr said.
Declination memos are written by Justice Department officials when they decline to file charges against individuals, essentially ending an investigation.
Barr said the attorney general is responsible for notifying Congress and reporting "certain information" once the investigation ends, and he sought to assure lawmakers that he would be as transparent as regulations allow. "It's really important to let the chips fall where they may and get the information out," he said.
Earlier in the hearing, Barr criticized former FBI director James Comey in a way that suggested Barr, as attorney general, would limit what information is released from the Mueller investigation.
Speaking of Comey's July 2016 announcement that former secretary of state Hillary Clinton, Trump's opponent in the presidential election, would not be charged for her use of a private email server to do government business, Barr said: "If you're not going to indict someone, you don't stand up there and unload negative information about the person. That's not the way the department does business."
That last point could be important if Barr were to apply that rationale to the Mueller investigation. By the same logic, Barr might decide it is inappropriate for the Justice Department to provide negative information about any individuals who were not charged or accused of crimes by Mueller - leaving lingering questions unanswered.
A poll released last month found that 3 in 4 American adults believed the entire Mueller report should be made public. Two-thirds of Republicans agreed with that statement, while 9 in 10 Democrats agreed, according to the poll from NPR/"PBS NewsHour"/Marist.
Sen. John Neely Kennedy, R-La., expressed concern that Justice Department regulations might keep important information from the public.
"The American people deserve to know what the Department of Justice has concluded," Kennedy said. "I would strongly encourage you to put this all to rest. To make a final report public, and let everybody draw their own conclusions so we can move on. If somebody did something wrong, they should be punished. But if they didn't, let's stop the innuendo and the rumors and the leaking, and let's move on."
The committee's top Democrat, Sen. Dianne Feinstein of California, told Barr: "We should be able to see the full information that comes out."
Barr noted he was unaware of what conversations Mueller and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein may have already had on how to make such information public, and that Justice Department leaders might already have a plan in mind.
While it was Barr who faced the questions and the cameras, in some ways the star of Tuesday's hearing was the person who was not there: Mueller, the focus of so much of the lawmakers' speculation and concern.
In avuncular fashion, Barr tried to assure lawmakers that his seniority and semiretired status were proof of his ability to protect Mueller and preserve the independence of the Justice Department.
"I feel that I'm in a position in life where I can provide the leadership necessary to protect the independence and the reputation of the department," Barr said.
As attorney general, he said, "you have to be willing to spend all of your political capital and have no future. I feel like I'm in a position in life where I can do the right thing and not really care about the consequences."
Barr was speaking from experience, having led the Justice Department under President George H.W. Bush during the early 1990s.
Barr said he would not halt or hamper Mueller but that he also would not commit to following the recommendation of ethics officials if they saw a reason for him to recuse from overseeing the Russia investigation.
Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., pressed him to explain: "Under what scenario would you imagine that you would not follow the recommendation of the career ethics officials?"
Barr was blunt.
"If I disagreed with them," he said.
The current acting attorney general, Matthew Whitaker, decided to disregard the view of ethics officials who felt he should recuse from overseeing the Russia probe because of his past statements regarding that investigation. Whitaker is scheduled to testify for the first time before Congress on Feb. 8 before the House Judiciary Committee. That hearing is also expected to focus on the Russia investigation.
Barr sparred at times with Democrats on the committee, but for the most part the questioning was calm and measured.
Much of the hearing focused on a memo Barr wrote in June that was highly critical of what he wrote was a "fatally misconceived" legal approach by Mueller toward possible obstruction of justice by the president related to his firing of Comey in May 2017. Separately, Barr also wrote opinion pieces defending the president's decision and criticizing former deputy attorney general Sally Yates for refusing to defend Trump's travel-ban executive order.
Barr called "ludicrous" the notion that his public comments critical of the Mueller investigation was some kind of audition for the attorney general job, and Barr promised that no changes would be made to the special counsel's report.
During the hearing, Barr recounted a conversation he had with Trump in June 2017, in which he was briefly considered as a possible private lawyer for Trump to help deal with Mueller's investigation.
Barr said he met with the president but made it clear to him he didn't want the job.
Barr said Trump asked him about Mueller's integrity.
"I said Bob was a straight shooter and should be dealt with as such."
As the hearing wore on, Barr fielded more questions about Justice Department policy, rather than the Mueller investigation.
On guns, Barr called the epidemic of mass shootings "the problem of our time" and urged improvements to state laws that would help authorities detect people with mental illnesses and prevent them from possessing firearms.
Barr acknowledged that the current background check system for firearms is "sort of piecemeal" and called for states to pass more red-flag laws, which would allow guns to be temporarily seized from those people deemed a threat. Such laws would help supplement background checks to ensure people with mental illnesses could not obtain a gun, Barr said.
"This is the single most important thing I think we can do in the gun-control area to stop these massacres from happening in the first place," Barr said.
Midway through Tuesday's hearing, Barr made clear he personally would support marijuana being illegal everywhere. But overall his answers will probably hearten those involved in selling and using the drug.
"To the extent that people are complying with the state laws, distribution and production and so forth, we're not going to go after that," Barr said.
Barr then stressed "we can't stay in the current situation," in which the drug is legal in some states and illegal under federal law. He called on Congress to pass a law that will resolve nationwide how law enforcement should treat marijuana.
The confirmation hearing comes as the entire workforce of the Justice Department that Barr would lead is either working without pay, or furloughed without pay, because of the partial government shutdown that grew out of the president's demand for $5.7 billion for building more wall along the country's southern border.
During a break in testimony, Feinstein, the top Democrat on the panel, said the hearing was "going very well" and she expected him to be easily confirmed.
Video Embed Code
Video: President Trump's attorney general nominee William P. Barr on Jan. 15 said he would release the Russia report "consistent with" special counsel statute regulations.(JM Rieger/The Washington Post)
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Video: Attorney general nominee William P. Barr said Jan. 15 during his confirmation hearing that he would let special counsel Robert Mueller III finish his investigation.(The Washington Post)
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