Once it passes the Senate, the legislation will have to go back to the House for final approval before being sent to Biden’s desk for his signature. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) has guaranteed the House will pass the Senate’s version of the bill, despite some changes that liberals dislike, including narrowing eligibility for $1,400 relief checks and excluding a $15 minimum wage.
Democrats had been holding out hope that Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska) would vote with them, but she did not, despite a handful of last-minute changes that could benefit her state. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) had made clear he wanted Republican senators to stay unified against the legislation, and they did.
However, Murkowski told reporters later that she was still examining the final version of the legislation, which was unveiled just moments before Thursday’s vote and could change further during the amendment process.
“I’m going to look and see what’s in it. We already know some of the things that have been pointed out that are clearly not covid-related,” Murkowski said. “But I’m looking at some of the things that will provide a level of relief for a state like Alaska.”
The vote Thursday came after the last-minute negotiations appeared to succeed in locking down support from wavering moderate Democrats — even if no Republicans were immediately convinced. In addition to limiting the relief checks, the legislation includes new limits on a $350 billion pot of state and local aid, setting aside $10 billion of it for infrastructure needs that could include broadband, and including a rule barring cities and states from using any new federal money to pay down pension costs or offset new attempts to cut taxes.
It also includes new provisions to ensure that smaller-population states, like Alaska, would receive adequate funding, and it directs increased funding to tourism and outdoor-recreation industries.
As soon as the Senate voted to proceed to the bill, Sen. Ron Johnson (R-Wis.) insisted on a full reading of the 628-page bill, which commenced immediately and dragged into the early morning hours Friday. Senators normally waive a full reading of legislation but Johnson has described this as part of his plan to resist the legislation. He also intends to try to force votes on multiple amendments.
Senate Majority Leader Charles E. Schumer (D-N.Y.) said he welcomed Johnson’s move to have the bill read aloud so Americans could hear the contents of a measure that has polled well with the public — and he vowed the Senate would stay at work until passing the legislation.
“No matter how long it takes, the Senate is going to stay in session to finish the bill this week,” Schumer said.
“It is time to tell the American people that help is on the way.”
The Senate chamber quickly emptied out as clerks began to take turns reading the lengthy and highly technical bill — although Johnson remained at his desk.
“Good thing we have time during a national emergency to do this,” Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) loudly remarked before exiting the chamber.
Even fellow Republicans were less than enthused by Johnson’s endeavor. “Um, I think he wants to do that on his own,” said Sen. Mike Braun (R-Ind.) when asked if he had any plans to join Johnson on the floor while the bill was being read.
It took Senate clerks 10 hours and 44 minutes to read the full bill before the Senate adjourned shortly after 2 a.m. Friday, with plans to reconvene later in the morning to debate and vote on amendments.
In addition to stimulus checks and state and local funding, the legislation also includes $130 billion for schools and some $160 billion for vaccines, testing and other assistance for the health-care system, as well as rental assistance, an enhanced child tax credit, and an increase and extension of emergency federal unemployment benefits that would otherwise expire on March 14.
Democrats and the Biden administration have vowed to finalize the legislation ahead of that March 14 deadline. Biden’s plan would increase the current $300 weekly federal unemployment benefit to $400, and extend it through August.
Republicans railed against the legislation, saying it was replete with excess spending that was unrelated to the coronavirus and unnecessary after Congress already devoted some $4 trillion last year to fighting the pandemic.
“Calling this a coronavirus bill is like calling Harvey Weinstein a feminist,” Sen. John Neely Kennedy (R-La.) said on the Senate floor.
Before the Senate can vote on final passage of the bill, there will be an open amendment process called a “vote-a-rama” with amendments expected from all sides. Johnson said he was trying to ensure as many amendments as possible were voted on, dragging out the process as long as possible.
Republicans were also working on amendments aimed at getting some Democratic support. Sen. Mitt Romney (R-Utah) said he was crafting an amendment aimed at targeting state and local funding to places that actually experienced revenue losses. Some state budgets have shown greater resilience than expected.
“If states had rising revenues and have already had reimbursement for their covid expenses, I don’t see why we should be borrowing money from China to send them more money,” Romney said.
Democrats are pushing the legislation through the Senate under a process called “budget reconciliation” that allows it to pass with a simple majority vote, rather than the 60 normally required. That means no GOP votes are needed, but it also limits what can be included in the bill, excluding provisions that don’t have a certain impact on the federal budget.
The $15 minimum wage Biden had included in the bill was ruled out by the Senate parliamentarian on the grounds it did not comply with the rules of budget reconciliation. That decision infuriated liberals, and Sanders said he would offer an amendment aimed at restoring it. However, the exclusion of the $15 minimum wage will probably help ease its passage through the Senate, since two moderate Democrats — Sens. Joe Manchin III (W.Va.) and Kyrsten Sinema (Ariz.) — had declared they did not support the $15 minimum wage.
Despite some changes made around the margins, the White House never backed off the overall $1.9 trillion price tag of the bill, or its core components. Republicans accused Biden of reneging on his campaign promises to govern with bipartisanship and unity, but the White House insisted the measure is popular with Republican officeholders across the nation — if not those on Capitol Hill — and that the president continues to reach out to Republicans.
“I’ve been talking to a lot of my Republican friends in the House and the Senate and continue to do that,” Biden told reporters Thursday.
Seung Min Kim contributed to this report.