Such blistering heat episodes are becoming increasingly common in an environment shaped by the continuing impacts of human-induced climate change. The Middle East is already one of the hottest regions in the world, with triple-digit temperatures and bone-dry conditions the norm.
On Saturday, high temperatures hit 123.8 degrees in Sweihan, a small town about 50 miles east of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Omidieh in southwestern Iran also climbed to 123.8 degrees, while Jahra, Kuwait, on the Persian Gulf, managed 123.6 degrees.
Sunaynah, an inland desert town in northern Oman, logged a high of 122.2 degrees. Sibi in central Pakistan did the same.
Following Saturday’s blowtorch, somehow Sunday turned it up a notch, when the mercury soared to an astonishing 125.2 degrees in Sweihan, United Arab Emirates.
According to Etienne Kapikian, a meteorologist with MeteoFrance, the Sweihan high temperature beat out the 124.3-degree reading set there on July 2, 2017, thus becoming both a monthly and record high. It’s also the hottest June temperature ever observed in the United Arab Emirates and ties the nation’s record.
Climate historian Max Herrera tweeted that “the Middle East and Central Asia are under the harshest heat wave in history for this time of the year.”
Herrera also noted that impressive temperature readings were observed at higher elevations, too.
It reached 113.9 degrees in Bam, Iran, at 3,018 feet altitude. At Uch-Adzhi in Turkmenistan, a nation that borders the Caspian Sea, temperatures peaked at 116 degrees. Termez, in extreme southern Uzbekistan, recorded a high of 112.5 degrees Sunday, with 110.7 degrees measured at Isambaj in Tajikistan at an altitude of 1,847 feet.
The Monday evening weather balloon launch from Abu Dhabi International Airport measured temperatures exceeding 90 degrees all the way up to nearly 5,000 feet above the ground.
This early-season scorcher is the result of building high pressure, also known as a heat dome. That kinks the jet stream northward and suppresses rain chances, allowing heat to become established while diverting cooling clouds, fronts and disturbances. Sinking air also causes additional warming.
Heat domes like the one affecting the Middle East and Asia cause the atmosphere to bulge vertically, since gases expand when heated. That means the halfway point of the atmosphere’s mass, known to meteorologists as the 500 millibar level, is now roughly a football field taller.
It is worth noting that this heat dome isn’t particularly intense, yet temperatures are already at record values. This points in large part to the influence of human-induced climate change. In other words, Earth’s background warming works with natural variability to push what might otherwise be more routine fluctuations into record territory.
Heat extremes have already been documented dramatically increasing in frequency in the Middle East and North Africa.
There is even research to suggest that parts of the Middle East might become uninhabitable as ambient temperatures continue to warm and extremes become more frequent. This is particularly true along the Persian Gulf, where coastal humidity can combine with exceptional temperatures to occasionally induce choking heat indexes over 140 degrees.