2019 is ending as it began: With women and allies of all genders leading the charge for political change.

From the streets of Chile and Iraq to Lebanon and Hong Kong, women have been at the forefront of protest movements against crippling economic inequality, corruption and inept government. They are braving live fire, rubber bullets, arrest and even death to deliver one message to the men who are largely running the show: It’s time for them to go.

Santiago, Chile (Carla Motto/CNN)

All over the world, 2019 has also been a year of amplifying alliances between feminist and LGBTQ communities, from legal battles over transgender rights and same-sex marriage in Kenya and India to movements pushing for more inclusive, gender-neutral language in places such as Germany and Argentina.

It has been a year of loss and pain, too: the countless women killed by their husbands, brothers and acquaintances; the tragedies of gender-based violence that occasionally generate international headlines before all too often fading from public memory.

Here’s a look back at 10 key wins, losses and patriarchy-smashing moments for women’s rights and gender equality in what has been a roller coaster ride of a year.

1. When women in India made history by entering a men-only temple

Speaking from a police station on Feb. 5, Kanakadurga described for The Post what it was like to enter the inner sanctum of India's Sabarimala temple on Jan. 2. (Joanna Slater/The Washington Post)

The year kicked off with women literally standing hand-in-hand to demand equality.

Millions of devotees each year visit the Sabarimala temple in the southern Indian state of Kerala. That is, except women of menstruating age, who were denied entry as part of a long-standing tradition.

In 2018, India’s Supreme Court ruled that this prohibition was illegal. Several women and girls attempted to enter after the ruling was issued but were pushed back by men, who subjected them to harassment and threats.

So, on Jan. 1, women in Kerala joined hands and formed a symbolic wall stretching more than 300 miles to protest what they decried as discrimination.

Two days later, at 3:45 a.m., two women finally pushed their way into the temple: A university professor and a government employee, both in their 40s, entered the inner sanctum of the Sabarimala temple. Their presence set off clashes between protesters and police in the state capital. The family of one of the women even disowned her.

It was a historic step forward in the battle for women’s rights and religious freedoms in India, which in recent years has experienced a surge in Hindu nationalism. But there have been steps backward since.

Opponents are appealing the court ruling, and in November, seven women were attacked⁠ — one with chili spray ⁠ — when they attempted to enter the temple.

2. Canada finally acknowledged its ‘genocide’ of indigenous women

Canada’s 1.6 million indigenous people already knew something was wrong. For decades, their women and girls have vanished or been killed at alarming rates. Police showed little interest in solving the cases, and no one in power seemed to be listening.

2019 brought bittersweet clarity. In January, a commission appointed by the government to investigate the phenomenon released its results: The report found what amounts to a “race-based genocide” of Canada’s indigenous women and girls, who remain “under siege.”

“Genocide is the sum of the social practices, assumptions and actions detailed within this report,” the 1,200-page analysis concluded. It detailed how “appalling apathy” and “colonialist structures” left these women and girls tragically unprotected.

3. Kenya’s Supreme Court upheld a ban on same-sex relations

Kenya was at a critical decision point this year: Would it join South Africa to become only the second African country to legalize same-sex marriage, or would the Supreme Court uphold a British colonial-era law outlawing sodomy and same-sex relations?

In the end, the court chose the latter. In May, it ruled that Kenya’s law banning gay sex and criminalizing same-sex relations with up to 14 years in jail did not violate the defendants’ constitutional rights.

Activists say they hope Kenya’s Court of Appeals, which is higher than the Supreme Court, will hear their appeal. In the meantime, they will keep organizing.

Same-sex relationships are banned in more than 70 countries, almost half of them in Africa.

4. When women in the Middle East rallied for equality in inheritance and citizenship laws

The future of the Middle East is quietly being shaped by a female-led struggle over inheritance and citizenship laws.

Inheritance laws in many countries in the region are based on a conservative interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence, or sharia law. Under these laws, female heirs inherit half as much as their male counterparts. It’s a way of restricting women by making them financially dependent on male relatives and keeping social power and wealth concentrated among men.

Under another set of laws common throughout the Middle East, women cannot pass down their citizenship to their children or spouse. That means, for instance, that the children of a Lebanese woman married to an Egyptian man do not qualify for Lebanese citizenship. These laws similarly limit women’s freedoms — in this case, whom she wants to marry — thereby controlling and restricting a country’s national makeup.

Inheritance isn’t the hottest of topics, but changes to these patriarchal laws would reverberate widely, improving the social and economic status of women in the Middle East. The struggle gained even more visibility this year.

In November, a Coptic Christian woman in Egypt won a court battle to receive the same inheritance as her brothers after arguing that Islamic family law should not apply to her. During the ongoing protests in Iraq and Lebanon, women have been at the forefront of the push for change — inheritance and citizenship laws included. Last year, Tunisia’s cabinet approved a bill enshrining equal inheritance rights for men and women. The legislation, which faces opposition, awaits passage in parliament. All of this is helping to push the issue to the forefront.

5. More men were acquitted of rape because of Spain’s antiquated law

Under Spanish law, a victim must be conscious and forcibly assaulted for the crime to count as rape. Critics of the law argue that many victims freeze up or cannot fight back during assaults and that consent by its very definition cannot be given if the victim is unconscious.

No matter, at least in Spain. In October, a court found five men guilty of sexual abuse — but not of rape — after they gang-raped an unconscious 14-year-old girl in Manresa, in the northeastern region of Catalonia, in 2016.

Eleven people said they witnessed the crime. Some also reported being threatened by the assailants, who were ages 19 to 26.

Activists labeled the men the “Wolf Pack of Manresa,” a reference to another high-profile and controversial rape case in 2018, in which five men charged with gang-raping an 18-year-old were at first acquitted of rape before the Spanish Supreme Court overturned the decision.

After the initial 2018 ruling and ensuing protests, the government formed a commission that recommended changing Spain’s legal definition of rape. That hasn’t happened yet.

In the meantime, the Manresa victim is still in counseling, her attorney told the court.

“In another flash, I am crying and someone with glasses is on top of me. There were lots of people” masturbating, the victim had earlier testified. She later added, “It hurt. I don’t remember any more.”

6. Teens in Argentina led the call for gender-neutral language

It was a year of increasing visibility for gender and LGBTQ equality struggles around the world. In Argentina, teens led the way. They championed gender-inclusive forms of Spanish, a language traditionally structured along a male-female binary.

“In classrooms and daily conversations, young people are changing the way they speak and write — replacing the masculine ‘o’ or the feminine ‘a’ with the gender-neutral ‘e’ in certain words — to change what they see as a deeply gendered culture,” reported The Post’s Samantha Schmidt. “Their efforts are at the center of a global debate over gender, amid the growing visibility of non-binary identities and a wave of feminist movements worldwide. A big part of the battle is being waged over language.”

In 2018, Natalia Mira, then 17, was scolded by a journalist after she used gender-neutral words while speaking in Spanish during an interview. (A24)

As Schmidt found, in Argentina, these gender-neutral forms are growing in popularity, with children’s books, university departments, courts, activists and even the new president using this more inclusive Spanish.

7. South Koreans confronted the ‘molka’ epidemic and rape culture among K-pop stars

In November, K-pop star Goo Hara, 28, was found dead in her apartment in Seoul in what investigators say could have been a suicide. Goo had reportedly also attempted to kill herself six months earlier.

Her personal struggles, which K-pop stars are discouraged from sharing, became public in 2018, when she accused her ex-boyfriend of secretly filming them having sex and blackmailing her by threatening to release the footage.

Goo was not alone. In November, a South Korean court found two male K-pop stars guilty of raping unconscious women, secretly filming the encounters and distributing the videos — a phenomenon known in South Korea as “molka.” The case, one in a number involving male K-pop celebrities, has rocked the lucrative industry, known for its clean-cut music and predominantly female fan base.

The case coincided with growing public attention on — and anger at — endemic misogyny in South Korea. Last year, tens of thousands of women marched in Seoul against molka under the slogan “My Life is Not Your Porn.” Still, actual change has been slow to materialize.

As Seoul-based journalist Haeryun Kang wrote in November in The Post, “Most spy-cam-related bills, including some that aim to fine or imprison service providers who don’t delete such footage from their websites, continue to stall in the National Assembly, leaving the victims of these crimes to continue to try to find justice in a flawed system.”

8. When Nigeria’s #MeToo movement erupted

This year, several #MeToo-style movements took off in Nigeria and other parts of West Africa as women came forward about the sexual abuse, harassment and rape they have long suffered in silence.

In northern Nigeria, a conservative and mainly Muslim part of the country, a young pharmacist in February alleged on Twitter that her boyfriend had almost killed her. Soon, #ArewaMeToo — Arewa means “north” in the Hausa language — was taking off.

In June, Busola Dakolo, 34, a well-known Nigerian photographer, publicly accused Biodun Fatoyinbo, her former pastor, of twice raping her years ago. After the interview aired, other women contacted Dakolo to say that Fatoyinbo, a prominent pastor in the capital, had sexually assaulted them, too.

The outrage that ensued was fierce, but so was the backlash. Fatoyinbo took a leave of absence from his church but is back at the pulpit now and has denied all allegations. Nigeria’s most influential Muslim leader, meanwhile, has formally banned #ArewaMeToo.

9. Chile’s feminist battle cry ringing around the world: ‘The rapist is you!’

Protests broke out in Chile in October against crippling economic inequality and failing government policies, opening the floodgates for all kinds of dissent involving the status quo, gender-based violence included.

In late November, the Chilean feminist collective Las Tesis penned a chilling anthem, “Un violator en tu camino,” or “A rapist in your way.” The message of female anger and defiance quickly resonated and spread across the globe.

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Además, quisiéramos aclarar que rechazamos categóricamente todos aquellos actos de discriminación a mujeres con hij-s, de homofobia y de transodio ocurridos en nuestras convocatorias. Nuestra invitación siempre ha sido y será para mujeres y disidencias, con lo cual buscamos generar un espacio seguro para todas y todes, y no permitiremos que estos actos violentos lo destruyan. A todas las personas que incitan al odio en nuestras publicaciones, nos desean entre otras cosas la violación y la muerte, les queremos decir que no les tenemos miedo. Ahora somos miles. A todos l-s políticos que han manifestado estar tan de acuerdo con nuestro discurso, ahora es su momento de pasar a la acción y ser consecuentes. Ya escucharon nuestras demandas y las de todo un país que lleva 48 días movilizado, ahora es el momento de actuar y rápido. Nosotras seguimos trabajando, seguimos resistiendo, les avisamos y les esperamos. En Chile se violan derechos humanos. Ahora más que nunca renuncia ministra Plá. Renuncia Piñera. Exigimos una Asamblea Constituyente paritaria y plurinacional Y QUE ARDA EL PATRIARCADO. *Video de LASTESIS, intervención en Valparaíso, viernes 29 de noviembre.

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“The patriarchy is a judge that judges us for being born, and our punishment is the violence you don’t see,” the chant begins. “It’s femicide. Impunity for the killer. It’s disappearance. It’s rape. And the fault wasn’t mine, not where I was, not how I dressed. … The rapist is you. It’s the cops, the judges, the state. The president. The oppressive state is a rapist.”

10. And lastly, the women symbolizing uprisings in Sudan, Lebanon and Iraq

In 2019, uprisings rocked the male-led political establishments in Sudan, Lebanon and Iraq. In Sudan, months of protests culminated in the ouster in April of Omar Hassan al-Bashir, the country’s longtime dictator, who has been accused of war crimes. Women in conservative Sudan were at the forefront of the demonstrations. One protester, 22-year-old Alaa Salah, became a symbol of the revolution after a video of her leading chants in traditional white attire went viral. Although lauded as iconic, many were quick to point out that it should not come as a surprise that women — who generally make up half a given population — have political grievances and opinions, too.

In Iraq, women have shouted into megaphones, tended to the wounded, organized protest camps, fed protesters and faced off with security forces, helping to sustain two months of demonstrations challenging the often-corrupt sectarian political system set up after the war.

And in Lebanon, where the public has been protesting for weeks against sectarianism and corruption plaguing the government, one fearless woman embodied the spirit of the revolution when she expertly kicked an armed man who was trying to prevent her from protesting. The video went viral.

Now comes the second struggle, women’s rights activists say: moving beyond the fetishization of female protesters to truly support and institute real gender-focused political change.

In short: Bring it on, 2020.