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Countries around the world are imposing coronavirus vaccine mandates. Here’s how they compare.

People march past a billboard of Bolivian President Luis Arce with the message “Vaccines for all Bolivians” during a protest of a government decree requiring proof of vaccination in La Paz, Bolivia, on Jan. 10, 2022. (Juan Karita/AP)
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This report has been updated.

As the pandemic grinds on and the omicron variant drives a global surge in new cases, more governments around the world are now mandating coronavirus vaccinations for some segments of their populations.

In the United States, the Supreme Court on Thursday blocked an order from the Biden administration requiring all businesses with more than 100 employees to vaccinate their staff or have them undergo weekly testing.

The ruling came just days after the mandate took effect. The court also ruled on a similar vaccination requirement for most U.S. health-care workers, allowing it to go ahead.

In other countries, such as France, authorities have created “vaccine passes” that allow individuals to enter bars, restaurants and other public venues. Some nations, including Indonesia, have implemented blanket vaccine mandates for most citizens.

Supreme Court seems skeptical of Biden’s vaccine rules for businesses, more receptive to policy for health-care workers

“People are dying, and will die, who don’t have to die,” President Biden said on July 29, calling on unvaccinated Americans to get vaccinated against covid-19. (Video: The Washington Post)

Here’s how several countries have handled coronavirus vaccination requirements.

Indonesia

Indonesia, the world’s fourth-most-populous country, made vaccinations mandatory in February as new infections surged across much of Southeast Asia early last year.

The government ordered that all eligible people be vaccinated — or face penalties such as fines or the suspension of social assistance programs.

Critics condemned what they said was a heavy-handed approach that would penalize the poor and raised concerns about the efficacy of the Chinese Sinovac vaccine — the only one available at the time.

Since the policy was announced, Indonesia’s vaccination rate has risen from less than 1 percent to about 43 percent of the population, according to Our World in Data, which tracks publicly available figures.

But the campaign hasn’t been a complete success, and now, as the highly infectious omicron variant spreads, the government is rolling out a controversial booster shot program requiring most residents to pay out-of-pocket for their third shots.

Indonesia faces ‘catastrophic’ covid storm as delta variant rips through hospitals

Turkmenistan

If you are 18 or older and live in Turkmenistan, you are required to get a coronavirus vaccine — unless you have a medical exemption. That’s according to an announcement in July from the country’s health ministry.

The bizarre twist: The Central Asian nation has officially reported no coronavirus cases or deaths.

Turkmenistan’s autocratic government continues to deny that the virus is circulating there and has clamped down on those who challenge the official line. Still, authorities have forced shops and restaurants to close for months at a time and imposed other restrictions.

Because the country is so isolated, data that might shed light on its vaccination campaign is hard to come by. In December, Turkmenistan’s health minister reportedly told the Russian ambassador that 80 percent of the population had been vaccinated.

But skeptics point out that Russia and China, Turkmenistan’s only vaccine suppliers, are unlikely to have provided the government with enough doses for that figure to be correct.

Russia

Desperate to boost low vaccination rates, Russian authorities this summer shifted the burden to local businesses.

In June, the mayor of Moscow ordered employers in key service and retail industries to ensure that at least 60 percent of employees were fully inoculated by mid-August. Officials later raised the target rate for the service sector to 80 percent.

A number of regions also introduced mandatory vaccination for all residents over the age of 60. Last month, Russian lawmakers proposed legislation that would restrict access to public places to those who have been immunized, are medically exempt from taking the vaccine or have recovered from covid-19.

Want to skip the vaccine in Russia? You could be suspended from work.

Also in December, however, Russian President Vladimir Putin called vaccine mandates counterproductive and said he did not plan to fine or prosecute people who decline vaccination, the New York Times reported.

“Whenever you start to push, [Russians] find ways to circumvent that,” he said.

Still, Russia’s vaccination rate has risen to 47 percent from just 11 percent in June.

Inside Russia's ‘fourth wave’: Record deaths, deep frustration and plenty of blame

France

France has opted to put pressure on the unvaccinated by essentially excluding them from public life while avoiding the imposition of a blanket mandate.

That pressure is tightening. French President Emmanuel Macron said last week that he aimed to “piss [the unvaccinated] off” by severely curtailing their access to social activities.

In much of the West, the walls are closing in on anti-vaxxers

French lawmakers approved a law in July that gave vaccinated people privileged access to restaurants, cafes and other places, as well as transportation between cities.

People also can enter the venues if they provide recent negative test results or proof of immunity through infection. But France’s lower house of parliament passed a bill last week to remove the testing option. The legislation faces a vote in the Senate.

Health-care workers were required to get vaccinated by Sept. 15 or face suspension without pay. And, in late August, the government extended the “health pass” requirements to 1.8 million public-facing workers in places such as restaurants, museums and public transit.

How vaccine-skeptic France and Germany came to support near-mandates

Polls show that a large majority of French people view vaccine passports favorably. But the restrictions also generated a backlash from some who argue that they go against France’s bedrock principles of liberty and equality.

Over the past six months, thousands of demonstrators have turned out to protest the measures, and some have even attacked politicians.

Austria

Austria announced in November a sweeping vaccine mandate for everyone over the age of 14 — with exemptions for those who are pregnant or have other exempting health conditions.

People who reject the vaccine, however, could face quarterly fines of more than $4,000.

“In our view, compulsory vaccination is indispensable,” Chancellor Karl Nehammer said last week.

The government planned to introduce mandatory vaccination in February. But technical problems with the registration system could delay its implementation until April. In the meantime, some experts are suggesting that officials rescind the policy.

A handful of other European countries also are enacting or exploring similar mandates as coronavirus infections and hospitalizations soar, in part because of the rapid spread of the omicron variant.

Italy — which already required workers to get inoculated or undergo regular testing — announced last week that everyone over 50 must be vaccinated. Germany and Belgium are also considering compulsory vaccinations. This month, Greece will begin fining people over the age of 60 who decline to be vaccinated.

Canada

In Canada, all federal employees; federally regulated air, rail and marine transportation sector workers; and employees of federally regulated workplaces, such as banks and telecommunication firms, must be fully vaccinated.

Federal workers are required to attest that they are fully vaccinated or risk being placed on unpaid leave. The federal government has said that some of the attestations will be audited.

Several provinces and territories require residents to provide proof of vaccination to enter certain spaces, such as restaurants, movie theatres, performance venues and sporting events.

On Tuesday, Francois Legault, the premier of Quebec province, told reporters that the province would begin requiring a “health contribution” for those who refuse coronavirus vaccination without medical exemptions — essentially a tax on the unvaccinated.

Costa Rica

In November, Costa Rica became one of the first countries in the world to mandate coronavirus vaccinations for children.

All residents age 5 or older will be required to get the shots beginning in March, along with other basic childhood immunizations mandated by law.

Ecuador to the south also has since followed suit, announcing last month that all citizens age 5 and above must be vaccinated, with exceptions for those who cannot safely comply.

Amanda Coletta in Toronto contributed to this report.

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