The Blue Bay is a Chinese resort under construction in Sihanoukville, Cambodia. (Anna Fifield/The Washington Post)

It was a hot, clear day. The kind of day when, a few months ago, the beach here would have been crowded with tourists deciding whether to drink a $1 beer or a $1 fresh coconut juice.

Instead, the beach was almost deserted. Women wandered with trays of fresh lobsters perfectly balanced on their heads or carrying kits for performing pedicures, touting in vain for customers. 

Men lounged on chairs at their restaurants offering barbecued squid and local curries. But the only patrons were stray cats and flies.

“We’re not going to be able to feed ourselves soon. Our business is about to die,” said Doung Sokly, a 30-year-old woman who has been selling drinks, snacks and cigarettes from a cart on Independence Beach for eight years.  

A block away, however, business is booming in the new casinos that have popped up in recent months. They have names such as New Macau and New MGM, and they cater exclusively to Chinese guests. Cambodians are prohibited from gambling.

On this sunny afternoon when the beach was empty, the casinos were packed with Chinese customers smoking and slapping down $100 bills on the tables. All around were eagle-eyed Chinese supervisors and gaggles of young local women in short dresses and long eyelashes.

China is trying to spread its political and economic influence across the region, particularly through its ambitious “One Belt, One Road” infrastructure-
development initiative. And Cambodia is trying to develop its economy without having to adhere to any of the human rights demands that U.S. and European governments tend to insist upon.

Those two interests directly coincide in Sihanoukville, a port city on the Gulf of Thailand named after the late king who is still revered as the father of modern Cambodia. 

It is here that Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen’s willingness to be embraced by China is most evident.

“Sihanoukville is kind of a poster boy for China’s development. On all economic measures, China is number one,” said Carl Thayer, a Southeast Asia expert affiliated with the Australian Defense Force Academy and a former adviser at U.S. Pacific Command in Hawaii. “China is definitely trying to displace the U.S., and it’s succeeding wonderfully.”

For Hun Sen, who has been in power for 33 years and is taking steps to ensure he will be reelected in a vote scheduled for the end of July, this investment means he is able to boast about economic advances even as democratic institutions backslide.

The Cambodian government has allowed extraordinary levels of Chinese investment: Thirty casinos have already been built, and 70 more are under construction. 

One huge development, the Blue Bay casino and condos, advertises itself as “one of the iconic projects of China’s One Belt, One Road initiative.” The smallest studios start at $143,000, while the most prized apartments cost more than $500,000.

The number of Chinese tourists visiting Sihanoukville, a city of 90,000, doubled between 2016 and 2017 to hit 120,000 last year. Restaurants, banks, landlords, pawnshops, duty-free stores, supermarkets and hotels all display signs in Chinese.


The New MGM, a Chinese casino in Sihanoukville. (Anna Fifield/The Washington Post)

But with the exception of those working in the hotels and casinos, most Cambodians, whose average income is $1,100 a year, are seeing little benefit from this investment. And resentment is mounting.

“My business has halved,” said Chhim Phin, who has run a seafood restaurant on Independence Beach since 2003. “We used to have lots of Western tourists coming here, people who liked to try our food. But Chinese tourists don’t want to eat Khmer food and experience our local customs — they prefer to eat their own food. Chinese tourists like to stay in their bubble.” 

Next to his restaurant, a plot of land that used to be filled with backpacker bars that held dance parties on the beach has been reduced to rubble, the lease taken over by Chinese developers.

And when Chinese customers do come to his restaurant, Chhim Phin is not thrilled with their business. “I don’t speak Chinese, so it’s very difficult to communicate,” he said. “To be honest, I’ve had a very bad experience dealing with Chinese. They’re so rude.”

Doung Sokly, operating her cart, does not enjoy interacting with the new arrivals, either. “Western tourists don’t haggle, because they want to try local things. But Chinese tourists really try to get the prices down,” she said. 

As if on cue, a group of Chinese tourists on the beach erupted into laughter and yelling. “Listen to them. They’re so loud,” she said, glancing over at the group with a look of distaste. “It’s so annoying.”

Locals are also worried about organized crime resulting from the casinos, and the increasing incidents of drunken violence. After the publication of reports about the pros and cons of Chinese investment, Beijing’s ambassador acknowledged that “a small amount of low-educated people” from his country were breaking Cambodian laws.

Not that Western tourists are always well behaved. Sex tourism is a draw for some, while others have recently gotten into trouble for lewd behavior.

One local business owner who is happy with the Chinese influx is Ko Hong. He rents water scooters, charging Westerners $60 for an hour of joyriding. For Chinese customers, the price is $50. 

“Before it was more seasonal, but now I can earn lots of money,” Ko Hong said. On an average day he makes $200.

The main reason for the exodus of Western tourists and influx of Chinese visitors is accommodations, Chhim Phin and other business owners here say.


A model of the Blue Bay, a Chinese resort under construction in Sihanoukville. (Anna Fifield/The Washington Post)

The cheaper hotels and guesthouses that locals and Western tourists have liked have been crowded out by the big Chinese developers, who will pay much more for the land. Those that do remain have trouble hiring staff because they’re being snatched up for much higher wages.

“There used to be cheap accommodations here, but not anymore,” said Koeun Sao, a 29-year-old who estimates that his income from driving a tuk-tuk has dropped by 70 percent in the past three months. “Chinese people take cars, not tuk-tuks.”

The Chinese investment has not translated into better roads or other infrastructure in a city that struggles with basic plumbing. 

“All this building they’re doing is only to benefit Chinese,” Koeun Sao said. “It’s good for the landowners but not for ordinary people.”

But both the Cambodian and Chinese governments tout their economic cooperation.  

The Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone, a 4.4-square-mile industrial park where 104 of the 121 companies are Chinese, “stands as a symbol of renewed China-
Cambodia friendship by delivering real benefits to the people,” Chinese Premier Li Keqiang wrote for a Cambodian newspaper when he visited in January.

While here, Li signed 19 business deals. These included building an expressway between the capital, Phnom Penh, and Sihanoukville to replace the potholed narrow roads that link the cities now, and the construction of a new airport in Phnom Penh.

The two countries pledged to more than double the number of Chinese tourists coming to Cambodia to 2 million within the next two years and to boost bilateral trade to $6 billion.

“We’ll try to remain here,” Doung Sokly said from behind her cart. “We need to see how things unfold.”