“This was an outcome created by us, the United States, and nobody else, no other nation. Very simple,” he said.
Speaking in the Diplomatic Reception Room at the White House, Trump couched the agreement as part of his commitment to “a different course” in the Middle East, ending “endless wars” for which he has blamed his predecessors.
“Let someone else fight over this long-bloodstained sand,” he said.
Responding to those who he said had “scorned” him for abandoning the Kurds and capitulating to Turkish demands, Trump said that “now people are saying, ‘Wow. What a great outcome. Congratulations.’ ”
But many of those critics, including both Republican and Democratic lawmakers, were far from congratulatory, charging that Trump had opened the door to a resurgence of the Islamic State and expanded control of the region by Russia and Iran, allies of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
Trump, who announced the withdrawal of all U.S. troops in Syria two weeks ago, confirmed that a residual American force would remain near oil fields in eastern Syria. That area is south of a line of control Turkey has drawn 20 miles inside Syria.
“We’re going to be protecting it, and we’ll be deciding what we’re going to do with it in the future,” he said. U.S. officials have said about 200 troops, out of a total of about 1,000, will remain, along with 100 to 150 at a separate garrison in southern Syria near the Jordanian border.
Trump thanked Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, calling him “a man who loves his country,” and said that Syrian Kurdish commander Mazloum Kobane had told him in a phone call that he was grateful for U.S. efforts.
In Twitter messages posted on behalf of the Kurdish commander (who uses a nom de guerre and is known simply as Mazloum), spokesman Mustafa Bali confirmed that gratitude and said Trump “promised to maintain” a partnership with the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces. The SDF served as the main ground force in routing the Islamic State with U.S. weaponry and air cover, but Turkey considers it a terrorist organization.
Mazloum also held a videoconference with Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, posted online by Russian media.
Trump sent the three on a whirlwind trip last week to Ankara after Turkey sent its troops across the border just days after a Trump-
Erdogan phone call. During a long afternoon of talks, they reached a deal in which Turkey agreed to a five-day “pause” in its operations in a 75-mile border strip in Syria to allow the exodus of Syrian Kurdish fighters. More than 160,000 civilians also fled from Turkish-allied Syrian militias and Turkish military bombardment.
Erdogan agreed that if the pause succeeded and the Kurdish fighters left, a more permanent “halt” in the fighting would take hold. In exchange, the administration agreed to drop existing sanctions and what Trump had promised would be even harsher economic measures.
Many critics were just as dismissive of Wednesday’s announced victory as they were of the deal initially.
Sen. Chris Van Hollen (D-Md.), who last week, along with Sen. Lindsey O. Graham (R-S.C.) and others, co-sponsored a bill to impose legislative sanctions on Turkey, said Trump’s “celebration . . . represents his total surrender of American leadership and the treacherous betrayal of our Syrian Kurdish allies.”
On Twitter, Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.), in an apparent reference to the limited geography of the U.S.-Turkey cease-fire deal, said that Erdogan “has NOT agreed to stop all military operations in Syria.” Russia, which on Tuesday signed a deal with Turkey to take control of hundreds more miles of Syrian territory along the border, “is going to remove Kurdish forces” from that area, “including Kurdish cities,” and “take control of five oil fields.”
Others referred to the likelihood of an Islamic State resurgence as the Kurds look for new alliances and their U.S. mentors and protectors withdraw. Already, administration officials have reported “dozens” or more escapes of militants and family members from Kurdish-held prisons in Syria. “There were a few that got out — a small number, relatively speaking — and they’ve been largely recaptured,” Trump said.
Graham, a Trump ally who said last week that Erdogan should be treated like “the thug he is,” stepped back from his sharp criticism, tweeting that “this cease-fire, if permanent, represents real progress.” He stressed the importance of maintaining control of the Syrian oil fields.
A senior administration official said inducements offered to Erdogan this month not to invade — including a $100 million trade deal, resolution of a dispute over Turkish purchase of a Russian missile defense system, and a White House visit in November — were likely to be back on the table. Trump said only that he and Erdogan “may be meeting in the very near future.” Like others, the official spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss diplomatic matters.
Under the agreement signed Tuesday by Erdogan and Russian President Vladimir Putin in the Black Sea resort of Sochi, Kurdish fighters have until next week to withdraw from an area stretching from the Euphrates River to the Iraqi border.
If armed Kurdish units do not retreat, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov told Russian media, “that will have to be done by Syrian border guards and Russian military police. In that case, the Turkish army will roll over the remaining Kurdish units.”
Russian military police began patrolling parts of northeast Syria on Wednesday under the agreement. Russia’s Defense Ministry and local media reports said that a column of Russian military vehicles arrived in the city of Kobane, which until recently hosted a U.S. military base. The ministry said that Syrian government forces would also establish observation posts along the frontier.
Asked about the Russian role, a second senior administration official said, “I think we always watch the Russians warily wherever we are.” But, the official said, “the deal between Turkey and the Russians is something that’s between them. We did not have any role in that.”
“The reality is, the [Turkish] operation took place, there was fighting that broke out as a result, the president stepped in and negotiated . . . a temporary cease-fire that now appears to be permanent” and “helped save a lot of lives,” the official said. “We think that’s a victory.”
In an apparent reference to Turkey and Russia, Trump said that “others have come out to help, and we welcome them to do so — other countries have stepped forward.”
In Iraq, visiting Defense Secretary Mark T. Esper faced opposition from the government in Baghdad to U.S. plans to redeploy withdrawing troops to Iraqi territory. The Pentagon chief had said this week that U.S. forces departing Syria would redeploy to western Iraq to continue fighting the Islamic State.
Iraqi Defense Minister Najah al-Shammari told the Associated Press that U.S. forces were only “transiting” through Iraqi territory and would depart within four weeks.
“The government has confirmed that it will not grant permission for U.S. forces retreating from Syrian territory to remain in Iraqi territory,” Iraqi Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi said in a statement after meeting Esper.
He said Iraq was “taking all international legal measures” over the deployment of U.S. troops.
Earlier in the day, the Russian Foreign Ministry said that the Syrian government should retain control of the oil facilities in northeastern Syria.
The Kremlin also said Wednesday that the United States had betrayed and abandoned the Kurds in Syria. “The United States was the closest ally of the Kurds over the past few years. But in the end, the U.S. abandoned the Kurds, actually betraying them,” Peskov told reporters.
In Ankara, Ibrahim Kalin, an Erdogan adviser, addressed one of the most heavily criticized aspects of Turkey’s Syria buffer zone — a proposal to resettle up to 2 million Syrian refugees there. Refugee advocates have said the plan would violate international law if the Syrians were forcibly returned. Kurdish residents of northeast Syria fear that the plan, which would bring in Sunni Arabs originally from other parts of Syria, would force demographic change in the region.
Erdogan and his ruling party have faced anger from the Turkish public over the country’s hosting of up to 4 million Syrian refugees. In the months leading up to the Turkish offensive, thousands of Syrians were deported during a crackdown on the refugees. Turkish officials have asserted that their departures were voluntary.
In their agreements with Turkey, neither the United States nor Russia mentioned the return of the many Kurdish and other civilians who have fled the border region in the past two weeks.
One of the senior administration officials said, “I don’t think we’ve seen any evidence of ethnic cleansing. That would be a very serious thing if it takes place.”
Cunningham and Fahim reported from Istanbul. Missy Ryan in Washington contributed to this report.