The litigation arose out of a 1986 law, the Stored Communications Act, passed long before email became a common way to communicate and before American firms began storing massive amounts of data outside the United States.
During oral arguments, some of the justices asked why they shouldn’t just wait for Congress to resolve the question. Justice Sonia Sotomayor noted that such a bill was pending.
On March 23, Congress passed, and President Trump signed, the Cloud Act. The law states that a “provider of electronic communication service” shall comply with a court order for data “regardless of whether such communication, record or other information is located within or outside of the United States.”
Microsoft supported the legislation, which also provides a way to facilitate — through bilateral agreements — foreign law enforcement agencies’ access to data held inside the United States.
The Justice Department on Friday obtained a new search warrant requiring Microsoft to turn over the emails. “Microsoft no longer has any basis for suggesting that such a warrant is impermissibly extraterritorial,” Solicitor General Noel J. Francisco wrote in a motion to the Supreme Court. “There is thus no longer any live dispute between the parties, and the case is now moot.”
Microsoft declined to comment on Saturday.