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L. Ron Hubbard

L. Ron Hubbard

Church of Scientology
Science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard founded Scientology as a church in 1954 based on a form of self-help psychotherapy he called "Dianetics." Scientology's spiritual counseling, for which people pay money, involves an "audit" in which people confess painful or embarrassing moments while using a lie detector-type device. FBI raids on Scientology offices in the 1970s uncovered evidence that adherents had infiltrated government agencies and harassed people, but Scientology officials said they purged offenders from their ranks following the convictions. Since Hubbard's death in 1986, Scientology has stirred intense controversy in Germany. The church, known for suing its critics, won a hard-fought battle for tax-exempt status as a religion in the United States in 1993.
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Unification Church
The Rev. Sun Myung Moon founded the Unification Church in South Korea in 1954 and sent the first missionaries to the United States in 1959. Followers, known for street-corner vending, believe Moon is the Messiah. A U.S. congressional probe in 1976 demonstrated ties between the Unification Church and the South Korean government. The church has promoted an ideological war against communism and used its substantial financial resources to build political alliances with conservative leaders. In 1982, at a time when many American newspapers were folding, Moon started The Washington Times. That year he also was convicted of income tax fraud and conducted a "mass wedding" of 2,075 couples in Madison Square Garden.
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The Rev. Sun Myung Moon

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